Monday

Tafsir last ten surah - 3 (Surah Al-Ma`un)


سُوۡرَةُ المَاعون
Surah Al-Maun

بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful




أَرَءَيۡتَ ٱلَّذِى يُكَذِّبُ بِٱلدِّينِ (١

107:1 Have you seen him who denies Ad-Din?

فَذَٲلِكَ ٱلَّذِى يَدُعُّ ٱلۡيَتِيمَ (٢
107:2 That is he who repulses the orphan,

وَلَا يَحُضُّ عَلَىٰ طَعَامِ ٱلۡمِسۡكِينِ (٣
107:3 And urges not the feeding of Al-Miskin.

فَوَيۡلٌ۬ لِّلۡمُصَلِّينَ (٤
107:4 So, woe unto those performers of Salah,

ٱلَّذِينَ هُمۡ عَن صَلَاتِہِمۡ سَاهُونَ (٥
107:5 Those who with their Salah are Sahun.

ٱلَّذِينَ هُمۡ يُرَآءُونَ (٦
107:6 Those who do good deeds only to be seen,

وَيَمۡنَعُونَ ٱلۡمَاعُونَ (٧
107:7 And withhold Al-Ma`un.




Allah says,

أَرَءَيۡتَ ٱلَّذِى يُكَذِّبُ بِٱلدِّينِ (١

"O Muhammad! Have you seen the one who denies the Din'' Here the word Din means the Hereafter, the Recompense and the Final Reward.

فَذَٲلِكَ ٱلَّذِى يَدُعُّ ٱلۡيَتِيمَ (٢

Tَhat is he who repulses the orphan, meaning, he is the one who oppresses the orphan and does not give him his just due. He does not feed him, nor is he kind to him.

وَلَا يَحُضُّ عَلَىٰ طَعَامِ ٱلۡمِسۡكِينِ (٣

And urges not the feeding of Al-Miskin. This is as Allah says,

كَلَّا‌ۖ بَل لَّا تُكۡرِمُونَ ٱلۡيَتِيمَ (١٧) وَلَا تَحَـٰٓضُّونَ عَلَىٰ طَعَامِ ٱلۡمِسۡكِينِ (١٨

Nay! But you treat not the orphans with kindness and generosity! And urge not one another on the feeding of Al- Miskin! (89:17-18) - meaning, the poor man who has nothing to sustain him and suffice his needs.

Then Allah says,

فَوَيۡلٌ۬ لِّلۡمُصَلِّينَ (٤

So, woe unto those performers of Salah,

ٱلَّذِينَ هُمۡ عَن صَلَاتِہِمۡ سَاهُونَ (٥
those who with their Salah are Sahun.

Ibn Abbas and others have said, "This means the hypocrites who pray in public but do not pray in private.''

Thus, Allah says - unto those performers of Salah...

They are those people who pray and adhere to the prayer, yet they are mindless of it.

  • This may either be referring to its act entirely, as Ibn Abbas said, or
  • it may be referring to performing it in its stipulated time that has been legislated in Islam.
This means that the person prays it completely outside of its time. This was said by Masruq and Abu Ad-Duha.

Ata' bin Dinar said, "All praise is due to Allah, the One Who said, (with their Salah are Sahun) and He did not say, `those who are absent minded in their prayer.'''

It could also mean the first time of the prayer, which means they always delay it until the end of
its time, or they usually do so.

It may also refer to not fulfilling its pillars and conditions, and in the required manner.

It could also mean performing it with humility and contemplation of its meanings.

The wording of the Ayah comprises all of these meanings. However, whoever has any characteristic of this that we have mentioned then a portion of this Ayah applies to him. And whoever has all of these characteristics, then he has completed his share of this Ayah, and the hypocrisy of actions is fulfilled in him.

This is just as is confirmed in the Two Sahihs that the Messenger of Allah said,

This is the prayer of the hypocrite, this is the prayer of the hypocrite, this is the prayer of the hypocrite. He sits watching the sun until it is between the two horns of Shaytan. Then he stands and pecks four (Rakahs) and he does not remember Allah (in them) except very little.“

This Hadith is describing the end of the time for the `Asr prayer, which is the middle prayer as is confirmed by a text (Hadith). This is the time in which it is disliked to pray. Then this person stands to pray it, pecking in it like the pecking of a crow. He does not have tranquility or humility in it at all.

Thus, the Prophet said,

He does not remember Allah (in them) except very little.“

He probably only stands to pray it so that the people will see him praying, and his heart not facing Allah. This is just as if he did not pray at all.

Allah says,

إِنَّ ٱلۡمُنَـٰفِقِينَ يُخَـٰدِعُونَ ٱللَّهَ وَهُوَ خَـٰدِعُهُمۡ وَإِذَا قَامُوٓاْ إِلَى ٱلصَّلَوٰةِ قَامُواْ كُسَالَىٰ يُرَآءُونَ ٱلنَّاسَ وَلَا يَذۡكُرُونَ ٱللَّهَ إِلَّا قَلِيلاً۬ (١٤٢

Verily, the hypocrites seek to deceive Allah, but it is He Who deceives them. And when they stand up with laziness and to be seen of men, and they do not remember Allah but little. (4:142)

and Allah says here,

ٱلَّذِينَ هُمۡ يُرَآءُونَ (٦
Those who do good deeds only to be seen,

Imam Ahmad recorded from Amr bin Murrah that he said, "We were sitting with Abu Ubaydah when the people mentioned showing-off. A man known as Abu Yazid said, "I heard `Abdullah bin `Amr saying that the Messenger of Allah said,

"Whoever tries to make the people hear of his deed, Allah, the One Who hears His creation, will hear it and make him despised and degraded.''

from what is related to his statement, (Those who do good deeds only to be seen), is that whoever does a deed solely for Allah, but the people come to know about it, and he is pleased with that, then this is not considered showing off.

Allah said:

وَيَمۡنَعُونَ ٱلۡمَاعُونَ (٧
And withhold Al-Ma`un.

This means that they do not worship their Lord well, nor do they treat His creation well. They do not even lend that which others may benefit from and be helped by, even though the object will remain intact and be returned to them. These people are even stingier when it comes to giving Zakah and different types of charity that bring one closer to Allah.

Al-Mas`udi narrated from Salamah bin Kuhayl who reported from Abu Al-Ubaydin that he asked Ibn Mas`ud about Al-Ma`un and he said, "It is what the people give to each other, like an axe, a pot, a bucket and similar items.''

This is the end of the Tafsir of Surah Al-Ma`un, and all praise and thanks are due to Allah.

Thursday

Tafsir last ten surah - 2 (Surah Quraysh)



سُوۡرَةُ قُرَیش
Quraysh
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful


لِإِيلَـٰفِ قُرَيۡشٍ
  • For the Ilaf of the Quraysh. (106:1)

إِۦلَـٰفِهِمۡ رِحۡلَةَ ٱلشِّتَآءِ وَٱلصَّيۡفِ
  • Their Ilaf caravans, in winter and in summer. (106:2)

فَلۡيَعۡبُدُواْ رَبَّ هَـٰذَا ٱلۡبَيۡتِ
  • So let them worship the Lord of this House, (106:3)

ٱلَّذِىٓ أَطۡعَمَهُم مِّن جُوعٍ۬ وَءَامَنَهُم مِّنۡ خَوۡفِۭ
  • Who has fed them against hunger and has made them safe from fear. (106:4)

They (the Companions) wrote "In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful'' on the line (i.e., the space) between these two Surahs. They did this even though this Surah is directly related to the one which precedes it, as Muhammad bin Ishaq and `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam have both clarified. This is because the meaning of both of them is,

"We have prevented the Elephant from entering Makkah and We have destroyed its people in order to gather (Ilaf) the Quraysh, which means to unite them and bring them together safely in their city.''

It has also been said that the meaning of this (Ilaf) is what they would gather during their journey in the winter to Yemen and in the summer to Ash-Sham through trade and other than that. Then they would return to their city in safety during their journeys due to the respect that the people had for them because they were the residents of Allah's sanctuary.

Therefore, whoever knew them would honor them. Even those who came to them and traveled with them, would be safe because of them. This was their situation during their journeys and travels during their winter and summer.

In reference to their living in the city, then it is as Allah said,

أَوَلَمۡ يَرَوۡاْ أَنَّا جَعَلۡنَا حَرَمًا ءَامِنً۬ا وَيُتَخَطَّفُ ٱلنَّاسُ مِنۡ حَوۡلِهِمۡ‌ۚ

- Have they not seen that We have made it a secure sanctuary, while men are being snatched away from all around them. (29:67).

Thus, Allah says,

لِإِيلَـٰفِ قُرَيۡشٍ (١) إِۦلَـٰفِهِمۡ....
- For the Ilaf of the Quraysh. Their Ilaf,

This is a subject that has been transferred from the first sentence in order to give it more explanation.

Thus, Allah says,

إِۦلَـٰفِهِمۡ رِحۡلَةَ ٱلشِّتَآءِ وَٱلصَّيۡفِ
- Their Ilaf caravans, in winter and in summer.

Ibn Jarir said,
"The correct opinion is that the letter Lam is a prefix that shows amazement. It is as though He (Allah) is saying, `You should be amazed at the uniting (or taming) of the Quraysh and My favor upon them in that.'''

He went on to say, "This is due to the consensus of the Muslims that they are two separate and independent Surahs.''

Then Allah directs them to be grateful for this magnificent favor in His saying

فَلۡيَعۡبُدُواْ رَبَّ هَـٰذَا ٱلۡبَيۡتِ
- So, let them worship the Lord of this House.

Meaning, then let them single Him out for worship, just as He has given them a safe sanctuary and a Sacred House.


إِنَّمَآ أُمِرۡتُ أَنۡ أَعۡبُدَ رَبَّ هَـٰذِهِ ٱلۡبَلۡدَةِ ٱلَّذِى حَرَّمَهَا وَلَهُ ۥ ڪُلُّ شَىۡءٍ۬‌ۖ وَأُمِرۡتُ أَنۡ أَكُونَ مِنَ ٱلۡمُسۡلِمِينَ (٩١

- I have been commanded only to worship the Lord of this city, Who has sanctified it and to Whom belongs everything. And I am commanded to be from among the Muslims. (27:91)

Then Allah says,

ٱلَّذِىٓ أَطۡعَمَهُم مِّن جُوعٍ۬
- Who has fed them against hunger, meaning, He is the Lord of the House and He is the One Who feeds them against hunger.

وَءَامَنَهُم مِّنۡ خَوۡفِۭ
- And has made them safe from fear.

Meaning, He favors them with safety and gentleness, so they should single Him out for worship alone, without any partner. They should not worship any idol, rival or statue besides Him. 

Therefore, whoever accepts this command, Allah will give him safety in both this life and the Hereafter. However, whoever disobeys Him, He will remove both of them from him.

This is as Allah says,

وَضَرَبَ ٱللَّهُ مَثَلاً۬ قَرۡيَةً۬ ڪَانَتۡ ءَامِنَةً۬ مُّطۡمَٮِٕنَّةً۬ يَأۡتِيهَا رِزۡقُهَا رَغَدً۬ا مِّن كُلِّ مَكَانٍ۬ فَڪَفَرَتۡ بِأَنۡعُمِ ٱللَّهِ فَأَذَٲقَهَا ٱللَّهُ لِبَاسَ ٱلۡجُوعِ وَٱلۡخَوۡفِ بِمَا ڪَانُواْ يَصۡنَعُونَ (١١٢) وَلَقَدۡ جَآءَهُمۡ رَسُولٌ۬ مِّنۡہُمۡ فَكَذَّبُوهُ فَأَخَذَهُمُ ٱلۡعَذَابُ وَهُمۡ ظَـٰلِمُونَ (١١٣)

- And Allah puts forward the example of a township, that dwelt secure and well-content: its provision coming to it in abundance from every place, but it denied the favors of Allah. So, Allah made it taste extreme of hunger and fear, because of that which they used to do.
- And verily, there had come unto them a Messenger from among themselves, but they denied him, so the torment overtook them while they were wrongdoers. (16:112-113)

This is the end of the Tafsir of Surah Quraysh, and all praise and thanks are due to Allah.

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