Saturday

Placing feet in Salah



Introduction


In this fourteenth century of the Islamic era, a recently mushroomed sect known as the Salafis, has invented some new rules which they believe are the Sunnat teachings of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam). Inspite of their views being in conflict with the teachings of the Salf-e-Saaliheen belonging to the Noblest Ages of Islam (Khairul Quroon), they obstinately cling to their misguided opinions. Their method is to subject the Ahadith to their personal understanding. Inspite of the divergence which this self-opinion produces from the way of the Ummah inherited from the Sahaabah, the Salafis intransigently cling to their deviation.


A little reflection would convince them that it is not possible that the Aimmah-e-Mujtahideen who were the Students of the Sahaabah would propagate acts which are in conflict with the Sunnah. Any act which has been accepted and practised by the entire Ummah from the earliest era of Islam cannot be deviation. Deviation will be the act which is in conflict with this sacred unanimity.


One of the erroneous practices of the Salafis is their act of spreading their legs wide apart during Salaat. In the bid to touch the toes of the musalli standing adjacent to them, they disfigure their stance and ruin their composure with the mental preoccupation of touching the toes of the musallis standing on both sides in the Saff during Jamaat Salaat. Even when performing Salaat alone, they stretch the legs hideously apart. But for this innovation they have absolutely no Shar’i evidence. A solitary Hadith which makes reference to ‘foot with foot’ has been grievously misunderstood and misinterpreted by them. Besides their misinterpretation, they have intentionally ignored all the other Shar’i proofs which refute their interpretation.


A perusal of the relevant Ahadith on this subject will convince every unbiased Muslim that the Salafi interpretation of the Hadith is a concoction of the nafs. It is a concoction designed and prepared by shaitaan to create rifts and discord in the Ummah. When people opt to abandon the practices which the Aimmah Mujtahideen have reported on the basis of the authority of the Sahaabah, then shaitaani manipulation is evident.


All four Madhabs of the Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jama’ah unanimously refute the Salafi contention on the position to be adopted when standing for Salaat. None of the Madhabs teaches that the legs should be spread out widely when standing for Salaat nor that the toes of the Musalli alongside should be touched. Some of the Salafis go to great lengths in spreading their legs in the bid to touch the next man’s toes causing annoyance and much irritation.


The Emphasis on Straghtening the Sufoof
(Sufoof is the plural of saff which refers to the row of musallis in a Jamaat)


The Ahadith of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) emphasise the straightening of the sufoof. The emphasis in all the Hadith narrations dealing with this subject is directed to proper saff formation, not on the feet of the musallis touching the toes of the musalli standing alongside as the Salafis inordinately and inconsiderately practice.


In the endeavour to sustain the practice of stretching the legs wide open while performing Salaat, the Salafis have gone to the extreme of adopting this ugly stance even when performing Salaat alone. While a man who is uneducated in the laws of the Shariah may misunderstand the solitary Hadith in which reference has been made to foot with foot, the same mistake cannot and should not be made in so far as Salaat performed alone because the question of foot with foot is not remotely related to infiraadi Salaat, i.e. performing Salaat alone.

The Salafis may abortively argue that the aim of spreading the legs wide apart is to ensure straightness of the sufoof, but what argument do they have for justifying this unbecoming practice when a man is performing Salaat infiraadan(individually)? Furthermore, there is no Hadith narration in this regard which could even be misinterpreted to support the case of a munfarid stretching his legs to the extremities of east and west or north and south, depending on the location of the Qiblah from where he happens to be.


The Salafis claim that it is Sunnah to stretch the legs wide apart and for a musalli’s toes to touch the toes of the musalli standing alongside him in the saff. This ludicrous position is imposed by the Salafis on even women who are obliged to stand with their legs wide open. What an ugly, miserable and immodest stance for a woman to adopt? A woman is an object of concealment according to the statement of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam). When she has to stretch her legs wide open, she adopts the stance of lewd and shameless women. Throughout Salaat, a woman’s postures are to be constricted — made small and drawn in, not asserted like a man asserts and expresses his actions during Salaat.


As far as their stance is concerned for the munfarid, there is not a single Hadith which they can cite in substantiation for their view which anyhow is utterly baseless. All the relevant Ahadith on this topic teach the contrary, namely, that the feet should be held slightly apart — about four to five inches (10 cm). There also exists consensus of the Four Madhabs on this issue.


As far as the feet position for the saff is concerned, the Salafis conveniently overlook all the Ahadith which negate their corrupt view and intransigently cling to a view which they have understood to be the method. In taking to this view, they deliberately cast aside what exactly the Hadith in question says. They took a single word (namely ‘foot with foot’) out of the context of the Hadith and formulated the practice of stretching the legs wide apart and touching the toes of the musallis standing alongside on either side in the saff. For understanding this issue, it is best that we cite all the relevant Ahadith.


The Ahadith


1. Hadhrat Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: Straighten the sufoof, line up the shoulders, close the gaps and become tender in the hands of your brothers. Do not leave any gaps for shaitaan. Whoever joins the saff, Allah will join him. And whoever cuts the saff Allah will cut him. (Bukhari & Abu Dawood)


[Become tender: that is to comply when a brother musalli in the saff touches your shoulder indicating that you should bring it in line with the shoulders of the other musallis in the saff.]


2. Hadhrat Baraa’ Bin Aazib (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) used to enter the saff from end to end, touching our chests and our shoulders. He would say:

Do not be irregular (in your rows), for then your hearts will become irregular (i.e. discord will overtake you). He would (also) say: Verily, Allah Azza Wa Jal and His Malaaikah dispatch Salaam on the first sufoof

[When the word ‘Salaat’ is related to Allah Ta ‘ala, it denotes Rahmat, i.e. He sends down mercy. When it is related to the Malaaikah, it means that they supplicate to Allah Ta`ala to send His mercy upon His servants.]


3. Hadhrat Anas Bin Maalik (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that the Iqaamah for Salaat was given. Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) turned towards us and said: Straighten your sufoof and stand close together, for verily I see you from behind. In a narration of Hadhrat Anas (radhiyallahu anhu) it is mentioned: Everyone among us would put his shoulder with the shoulder of his companion (alongside) and his foot with his foot.


4. Hadhrat Anas (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: Join your sufoof and stand close together, and stand in line with (your) necks. I take oath by The Being in Whose power is my life that most certainly I see shaitaan entering the gaps in the saff as if he is a lamb. (Abu Dawood)


5. Abul Qaasim Jadli (rahmatullah alayh) said :I heard Nu’maan Bin Basheer (radhiyallahu anhu) say: ‘Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) turned towards the people (the musallis) and say three times: ‘By Allah! Most certainly, you should straighten your sufoof otherwise Allah will create discord in your hearts.’ Thereafter I saw that a man would attach his shoulder to the shoulder of his companion (the one standing alongside), his knee to the knee of his companion and his ankle to the ankle of his companion. (Bukhari & Abu Dawood)


6. Nu’maan Bin Basheer (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates: Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) would arrange (set in order) our sufoof. One day he came out (from his home) and saw a man (in the saff) whose chest was protruding in front of the (chests of) the community (i.e. the musallis). He then commented: ‘Straighten your sufoof otherwise Allah will cast discord in your faces (i.e. in the words coming from your mouths). (Tirmizi)


7. Maalik Ibn Abi Aamir Ansaari (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates: Uthmaan Bin Affaan (radhiyallahu anhu) would recite in his Khutbah: ‘When the Salaat is ready, arrange the sufoof properly and line up with the shoulders’ (i.e. the shoulders of the musallis should all be in line and touching). (Muatta Imaam Muhammad)
8. Hadhrat Anas (radhiyallahu anhu) narrated that Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: Join your sufoof and draw close among yourselves and line up with the necks. Reported by Abu Dawood and Nisai. Authenticated by Ibn Hibbaan. (Bulooghul Maraam)– I’laaus Sunnan


These are about all the narrations pertaining to the manner and style of standing in Jamaat Salaat. Explaining these Ahadith, Imaam Bukhaari (rahmatullah alayh) states in the section captioned:


JOINING SHOULDER TO SHOULDER:

This is what the Jamhoor have said: ‘Verily, the meaning (of joining in this context) is complete nearness and lining up, not actual joining (or touching).’ Al-Haafiz said: The meaning of this is to emphasise in straightening the saff and closing the gaps. And Aini too has said so. With this, the indication is towards emphasis in straightening the sufoof and closing the gaps. Qustulaani and others have also said this. (Laamiud Duraari commentary of Bukhari)

In Faidhul Baari it is reported as follows: 
It is stated in Sharhul Wiqaayah: ‘The musalli should stand apart (with his feet) so that there is a distance of four fingers in between them, and that is also the view of Imaam Shaafi (rahmatullah alayh), In another view it is said that the distance (between the feet) should be one hand (i.e. about 10 cm).’ (The author says): I did not find any difference of opinion among the Salf (i.e. Salf-e-Saaliheen) between the stance (of the musalli) in Jama’ah and in infiraad (i.e. performing alone). There is no difference regarding the gap (between the feet). It is not that the spreading of the feet should be more in Jama’ah than when performing Salaat alone.
The summary of this is: When we do not find the Sahaabah and the Taabi-een differentiating in their standing position between Jama’ah and individual Salaat, then we understand that the only meaning of Rasulullah’s statement of ‘joining the shoulders’ is to line up closely and to abstain from leaving gaps (between the musallis).

The following appears in Laamiud Duraari, Commentary of Saheeh Bukhaari:

The Authorities (the Fuqaha) stated that it is best for the musalli to keep his feet about four fingers apart. They did not say that the feet should be united in ruku’ or sajdah. Aini says in Binaayah: ‘It is appropriate that there be the distance of four fingers between the feet of the musalli, for verily, this is nearest to khushoo.’
Ibn Umar (radhiyallahu anhuma) would not spread (widely) his feet nor would the one foot touch the other, but between this there would be neither much closeness nor much distance.

In Raddul Mihtaar it is reported as follows:

The meaning of joining ankles to ankles is that everyone in the Jama’ah should stand alongside the other (i.e. in a straight line). So is it said in Fataawa Samarqand). (I’laaus Sunan)
From all the narrations and views of the Muhadditheen and Fuqaha of the Khairul Quroon era it is abundantly clear that the Hadith which mentions joining foot with foot does not have a literal meaning. It simply means that the feet should be all in line, and this is achieved by the heels of the musallis all being in the same line. This will ensure a straight saff on which the emphasis of all the Ahadith is.

The Salafis

The Salafis of this age, while grabbing the words ‘foot with foot’, ignore ‘neck with neck’, ‘shoulder with shoulder’, ‘knee with knee’ and ‘ankle with ankle’. The narrations command joining of the necks just as it instructs joining of the feet. And, in the same way it commands joining of the knees and ankles. How is it possible for the neck of one musalli to touch the neck of the musalli alongside? At most, shoulders can touch. But to achieve the phenomenal act of joining necks, the musallis will have to ruin their Salaat and stand on their toes balancing at a precarious angle to achieve the goal of touching each other’s neck. But no one has ever advocated this ludicrous stance. Similarly, if the literal sense of the ‘ankle with ankle’ has to be accepted, it will place the musallis under great stress to achieve what is not simple because the protruding heels are barriers for this achievement. Also, if ‘knee against knee’ had to be literally considered, the musallis would have to stand with ugly bandied legs, stretching even their thighs hideously in order to join their knees with the knees of their companions? But, not even the Salafis have ventured such ludicrousness.

Why do the Salafis choose only ‘foot with foot’ out of the several instructions pertaining to the joining of various bodily parts? For this choice they have only their intransigent nafsaani desire –no daleel whatsoever. What is the determining factor to choose only feet and to ignore necks, knees, shoulders and ankles? On the other hand, the Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jama’ah — the followers of the Four Madhabs have a mass of evidence to support ‘joining of the shoulders’. Furthermore, joining or lining up of the shoulders is simple, rational and fulfills in the best way the instruction of straightening the saff.


It should be noted that the emphasis is on closing the gaps. There should be no gap between two musallis standing in the saff. But, the wider the legs are spread apart, the more the distance between the shoulders will increase. Thus, spreading the legs wide apart defeats the very command issued in the Hadith to close the gaps and straighten the sufoof.


In order to achieve ‘foot with foot’ literally, the Salafis are constrained to turn their feet at angles away from the Qiblah. In this hideous exercise they manage only to touch the toes of the adjacent musalli with much difficulty and irritation to those whose peace of mind is disturbed with the unruly encroachment of his companion’s toes. When the toes are made to touch with the feet in diagonal positions, the shoulders cannot touch, the knees, ankles, necks, etc. are thrown completely out of alignment.


When shoulders are not lined up, it is impossible to achieve straight sufoof. It is for this reason that the Hadith emphasises more on shoulders. Feet are mentioned only once. The Sahaabah and the Taabi-een relate the instruction ‘to line up’ and straighten the saff to the shoulders, necks, knees, ankles and the feet. In other words, all these should be in line, not out of alignment. It is for this reason that the Hadith clearly mentions that the Khulafa-e-Raashideen, in fact Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) himself, would order protruding chests to recede into line. Never did any of the Authorities of the Shariah speak about feet which should touch.


In the adoption of the Salafi mode, the movement is excessive in Salaat. Neither is proper Ruku’ nor proper Sajdah possible if this hideous posture has to be retained throughout Salaat. In fact Sajdah is not at all possible with the feet spread wide apart. Therefore, the Salafis are constrained to shift positions repeatedly when going to ruku’. This excessive movement in Salaat in negatory of khushoo’.


THE FOUR MADHABS


While the case of the Four Madhabs is logical, the actual daleel (proof) for our view is not rational interpretation, but is narrational evidence. Such evidence has been transmitted down the centuries from the Sahaabah. It should be understood that the Aimmah-e- Mujtahideen — the Imaams of the Madhabs — had acquired their knowledge of Islam from either the Sahaabah or the Taabi-een who were the Students of the Sahaabah. Whatever they taught is therefore, what the Sahaabah had instructed. It is the height of folly and deviation to differ with them and to choose a way which is at variance with what they had disseminated.


It is not conceivable that the Salf-e-Saaliheen — all the Imaams of the Madhab were among them — were in deviation and the present-day Salafis are on Rectitude. This is unacceptable to any Muslim who is prepared to reflect a bit. The greatest daleel for the view of the Madhabs is that whatever they teach has been acquired directly from either the Sahaabah or the Taabi-een.


The Salafi practice of spreading the feet wide apart and the irritating attempt to touch the next man’s toes are in conflict with the Sunnah as the aforegoing Shar’i evidences have established.


Conclusion


1. According to the Hambali Madhab there should be a ‘small’ gap between the feet of the musalli.

2. According to the Maaliki Madhab, the distance should be moderate, neither together nor so wide apart which is considered repugnant.
3. According to the Shaafi Madhab, the gap between the feet should be one hand. It is Makrooh to spread the feet wider than this.
4. According to the Hanafi Madhab, the distance between the feet should be four fingers.
This is the Sunnah and the Way of the Salf-e-Saaliheen. The Salafis have no authority from the Salf-e-Saaliheen to substantiate its view of bid’ah.






The Feet in Salaat
By Mujlisul Ulama of South Africa
P.O. Box 3393
Port Elizabeth, 6056

Friday

Placing hand in Salah (Qiyam)




Madhab Hanafi:

Hajjaj ibn al-Hassan relates, either I heard Abu Mijlaz saying or I inquired from him, "How should one position his hands [during prayer]?" He replied, "He should place the inner portion of his right hand upon the back of the left one beneath the navel." [Musannaf Ibn Abi Shayba 1:390] The transmission of this hadith is sound [hasan], as Allama Mardini states in his book al-Jawhar al-naqiyy.

Ibrahim al-Nakhay relates, "One should place his right hand upon the left one beneath the navel whilst in salat." [Musannaf Ibn Abi Shayba 1:390] The transmission of this hadith is also sound [hasan].

Abu Hurayra r.a narrates, "The placing of one hand over the other in salat should be beneath the navel." [al-Jawharal-naqiyy 2:31

Anas r.a reports that there are three aspects from the character of Nubuwwa [Prophethood]: "to open fast early, to delay the suhur [pre-dawn meal], and to position the right hand over the left one beneath the navel while in salah." [al-Jawharal-naqiyy 2:31]

The author of al Durr al Mukhtaar, explaining the Hanafi position says: "For men the hands should be below the navel."

Madhab Maliki:

Imam Malik rah. has three narrations: 1) Not fastening the hands at all but letting them hang at the sides. This is the most famous ruling of his madhab. 2) A choice of fastening or letting them hang at the sides. 3) Placing the hands above the navel but below the chest.

(One of Imam Malik rah. view is that the right hand should not be placed on the left either on the chest or on the navel, rather both the hands should be left on their respective sides. Even there was no hadith to support this view but however, there is a practice of some Sahabah on which Imam Malik rah. has based his view. This is a juristic matter which is subject to different opinions. The three Imams i.e. Imam Abu Hanifah, Imam Shafi'i and Imam Ahmad, do not endorse the view of Imam Malik in this regard. Same as moving the finger in tahsyahud which only Imam Malik rah. hold this view)

Madhab Shafi'e:

Imam Shaf
'i rah. says that they should be placed above the navel but below the chest. Imam Nawawi rah. discusses this in his commentary of Muslim saying, 'This is the better known ruling of our Madhab.' He also says in Sharh al Muhaddhab, 'He should place them below his chest and above his navel. This is the correct and clear ruling (of our school).'

Madhab Hanbali:

Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal's rah. view is that that hands should be fastened below the navel. This is his most famous narration and is adopted by virtually all the hanbali ulama.

The Hanbali scholar Alaa al Deen al Mardawi writes in his al Insaaf, "He should place his hands below the navel. This is the Madhhab (of the Hanbali's), and upon this are the clear majority of the Hanbali ulama." [al Insaaf 1/46]

Imam Ahmed rah. also has two other narrations: 1) Above the navel but below the chest. 2)A choice of either of the two positions without preference for either.

Sheikh-ul Hadith, Moulana Muhammad Zakariyya rah. quotes the authors of Nail al Maarib, al Anwaar and al Rawdh al Murabb'a in his Awjaz al Masalik and then concludes, "We learn from this that the preferred and secure narration amongst the Hanbali ulama is that of below the navel." [Awjaz al Masalik 3/171]

- Thus, in reality, there are only two positions of fastening the hands: above the navel, and below it. No school of fiqh advocates the fastening of the hands on the chest.

Abu al tayyib al Madani writes in his commentary on Tirmidhi that none of the four Imams adopted the practise of placing the hands on the chest.

Ibn al Qayyim al Jawziyyah rah. also writes in his Badai' al Fawaid, 'It is makrooh (undesirable) to place the hands on the chest in view of the narration that the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) forbade takfeer, which is to place the hands on the chest.' (Bada'i al Fawa'id, 3/73)

Matter of hadith placing hands upon the chest and the following of analysis the hadith which often quoted for placing the hands upon the chest.

1. Wail bin Hujr r.a says, "I prayed with the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) and he placed his right hand over his left on his chest". (Ibn Khuzaimah, 479)

Imam Nawawi rah. says, "It's isnad is questionable and the additional wording 'on his chest' is inauthentic and not established."

This hadeeth has been reported by Muammal bin Ismaeel from Sufyan al Thawri from Aasim bin Kulaib from Wail bin Hujr rah. However it is only Muammal who reports these additional words from Sufyan al Thawri. Sufyan's other student, Abdullah bin al Waleed who also narrates this hadith from him does not include these words in his narration as recorded in Imam Ahmad's Musnad. (Ahmad 18392)

The other narrators who report the hadeeth together with Sufyan al Thawri from Aasim bin Kulaib have also not included these words in their narrations. Observe the following list of narrators who have al reported the same hadeeth from Aasim bin Kulaib but none of then have included the additional words reported by Muammal bin Ismaeel

• Sh'ubah, Abdul Wahid, and Zubair bin Muawiyah as in Imam Ahmad's Musnad. (Ahmad 18398, 18371 & 18397)

• Zaidah as in Imam Ahmad's Musnad, Darimi, Abu Dawood. Nasai and Baihaqi (Ahmad 18391, Darimi 1357, Abu Dawood 726, Nasai 889 and Baihaqi 2325)

• Bishr bin al Mufaddhal as in Ibn Majah, Abu Dawood and Nasai (Ibn Majah 810, Abu Dawood 726 & 957, and Nasai 1265)

• Abdullah bin Idrees as in Ibn Majah (Ibn Majah 810)

• Salam bin Saleem as in Abu Dawood Tayalisi's Musnad (Abu Dawood Tayalisi 1020)

There are many other chains for this hadith, however, none contain this extra wording. Thus, it is clear that this is Muammal bin Ismaeel's own erroneous addition to the hadith. Ibn al Qayyim al Jawziyyah rah. also says in I'laam al Muwaqqieen, "No one has said upon the chest apart from Muammal bin Ismaeel." (I'ilaam al Muwaqqieen 2/361) Therefore, as Imam Nawawi rah. has concluded in his al Ta'leeq al Hasan, this hadith with the additional wording of `upon his chest` is extremely weak.

It is an accepted principle of hadith that if a certain authentic and reliable narrator contradicts other equally authentic or more reliable 'arrators in his wording of a hadith then his narration will be declared shaadh and will not be accepted. If this is the case with authentic narrators, then an irregular addition of the words 'upon the chest' cannot be accepted from a narrator who, although declared acceptable by some, errs excessively and is weak of memory like Muammal bin Ismaeel. Study the following observations of the scholars of Jarh and T'adeel about Muammal bin Ismaeel:

Abu Hatim says, "He is sadooq, firm in sunnah, but one of many mistakes."

Imam Bukhari says, "Muammal is munkar al hadith" (People who view Imam Bukhari as the ultimate authority in matters of Hadeeth should note his following statement: "It is not permissible to narrate from anyone whom I have labelled munkar al hadeeth." [Mizan al I'itidal. 1/119]

Dhahabi says in al Kashif, "He is sadooq, firm in sunnah, but one of many mistakes. It was also said that he buried his books and narrated by heart and thus erred."

Ibn Sa'd says, "He is thiqah, though one of many mistakes."

Yakub bin Sufyan says, "Muammal Abu Abdul Rahman is a great sunni shaikh. I heard Sulaiman bin Harb praise him. Our shaikhs would advise us to take his hadith, only that his hadith are not like the hadith of his companions. At times it is obligatory upon the people of knowledge to distance themselves from his narrations as he narrates munkar hadith from even his authentic teachers. This is worse for had he narrated these munkar hadith from weak authorities we would have excused him.'

Saji says, "He errs excessively. He is sadooq, but one of many mistakes. He has errors that would take too long to be mentioned."

Muhammad bin Nasr al Marwazi says, "If Muammal alone relates a certain narration then it becomes obligatory to pause and research the hadith as he had a bad memory and erred excessively." (See Tahdheeb al Tahdheeb)

Hafidh Ibn Hajar has made it clear in his Fath al Bari that there is dhaif (weakness) in Muammal bin Ismaeel's narrations from Sufyan (Fath al Bari, 9/297). The above hadith has this very chain of narration.

We must also bear in mind that Sayyiduna Wail Ibn Hujr(ra), the very companion who narrates this hadith, was a resident of Kufa, and the practice of the people of Kufa was to fasten their hands below the navel. There is nothing to suggest that he contravened this practice. Sufyan al Thawri, from whom Muammal narrates this hadith, is himself of the view that the hands should be placed below the navel (Ibn Qudamah in al Mughni 2/23, and others as quoted by the author of Bughyah al Almaee 1/316)

Furthermore, there is another hadeeth narrated by Sayyiduna Wail (ra) himself (quoted above) which says that he saw the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) fasten his hands below the navel.

2. Sayyiduna Hulb (ra) relates, "I saw the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) turn from both his right and left and I also saw him place this upon his chest." Yahya (one of the narrators) described this as being the right hand upon the left above the wrist joint. 292

The above hadith contains the words 'upon his chest'. This extra wording is not firmly established or confirmed, because of all the narrators who report this hadeeth from Simak, only one reports this extra wording.

Observe the following narrations of the same hadith without the extra wording of 'upon his chest'.

• Abu al Ahwas reports from Simak bin Harb from Qabeesah bin Hulb from his father that the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) would lead us in prayer and would clasp his left hand with his right.293

• Shareek reports from Simak from Qabeesah bin Hulb from his father who says (towards the end of a longer hadeeth), "I saw him place one of his hands on the other and I also saw him turn once towards his right and once towards his left." 294. Wakee reports from Sufyan from Simak bin Harb from Qabeesah bin Hulb from his father who says, 'I saw the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) place his right hand upon his left in prayer and I also saw him turn away from both his right and left.'295

• Daruqutni narrates from Abdul Rahman bin Mahdi and Wakee', from Sufyan from Simak bin Harb from Qabeesah bin Hulb from his father who says, "I saw the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) place his right hand upon his left in prayer." (Daruqutni 1087)

The above narrations all clearly show that the wording 'upon his chest' is an unreliable addition on the part of one of the reporters and therefore this particular narration is shaadh.

Imam Nawawi rah. adds in his al T'aleeq al Hasan (1/145): "I have a suspicion that the wording of this hadeeth has mistakenly been changed by a writer. The correct words would appear to be "Yadhau hadhihi ala hadhihi", i.e., "he would place this hand upon this hand", and not "hadhihi ala sadrihi", i.e., "this hand upon his chest". Only this wording would be in agreement with the narrators own interpretation of the hadeeth as is stated in the narration "Yahya described this as being the right hand upon the left above the wrist joint". This would also tally with all the other narrations of this hadeeth that do not contain the wording "upon the chest", and would also explain why the following authors have not included this narration in their comprehensive books: Haithami in his Majm'a al Zawaid, Suyuti in his Jam' al Jawami, and Ali al Muttaqi in his Kanz alUmmal. And Allah knows best."

The author of Awn al M'abud also admits that Yahya's commentary does not fit the wording of the hadeeth.

NOTES:

footnote (fn) no. 292 says: Ahmad 21460. Allamah Hashim Sindhi says in Dirham al Surrah p. 113 that both Simak bin Harb and Qabeesah (two of the narrators of this hadeeth) have been disparaged by some of the ulama of jarh and t'adeel.

fn. 293 Ibn Abi Shaibah 3934, Ahmad 21467, Ibn Majah 809 and Tirmidhi 252. Imam Tirmidhi adds that it is a hasan hadeeth.

fn. 294: Ahmad 21464.

fn. 295: Ahmad2146I & 21475. Daruqutni 1087. al T'aleeq al Hasan 1/145



Wednesday

Gurau - 3

Tetamu dan ayam


Sebuah rumah disuatu desa dikunjungi tetamu, lalu tuan rumah pun sibuk menyediakan makanan dan menjemput tetamu tersebut menjamahnya. Maka mereka pun mula menjamah hidangan tersebut, hanya nasi, sayuran dan kuah kari. Tetamu yang berkeinginan daging ayam atau ikan tetapi segan bertanya kenapa hanya kuah kari tanpa apa-apa isi hanya berharap didalam hatinya.

 Tiba-tiba dari dalam, isteri tuan rumah bertanya, apakah perlu membawa keluar ayam, sisuami menjawab: "nanti". Tetamu pun amat girang hatinya bila mendengar perkataan ayam, lalu berangan akan besarnya hidangan ayam yang akan nanti dibawa keluar.

Setelah sepinggan dua habis nasi dimakan, seisteri tuan rumah bertanya lagi, apakah perlu sekarang dibawa keluar ayam, sisuami menjawab : "nanti". Sitetamu menjadi kehairanan namun segan bertanya lalu terus menjamah makanan sehinggalah kekenyangan.

Setelah itu, sisuami, tuan rumah lalu menjerit, "bawalah ayam-ayam tu keluar", lantas siisteri pun memberikan anaknya ayam-ayam tersebut untuk dibawa keluar. Lalu sianak pun membawa dua-tiga ekor ayam hidup keluar untuk memakan saki-baki nasi yang tumpah dilantai, manakala sitetamu terpinga-pinga.....


Ayam-ayam

Seperti biasa, sijaka, suami kepada banyaknya ayam-ayam betina berkokok sebelum matahari keluar, samaada untuk membangunkan seluruh keluarganya, tuannya mahupun memang itu adalah rutin hariannya.

Setelah berkokok, maka keluarganya yang terdiri dari banyak isteri-isterinya seta anak-anaknya pun perlahan-perlahan bangun sambil dalam keadaan rabun menanti akan keluarnya sang matahari agar kembali melihat dengan jelas disamping menjalani kehidupan seharian yang bebas diperkarangan rumah tuan mereka.

Tuan mereka pun seperti biasa akan menabur makanan kepada mereka dan seterusnya mereka bebas kesana kemari mencari cacing dan bahan makanan lainnya. Sungguh aman dan beruntungnya mereka merasa bilamana kedatangan sang matahari.

Suatu hari, situan menangkap sijaka, ayam jantan dan suami-ayah serta harapan kepada sekelian ayam-ayam disitu. Situan membawanya kebelakang lalu menyembelihnya. Lalu sekelian ayam betina begitu gelisah terutamanya dipagi hari keesokan harinya sebelum matahari keluar. Begitu gelisah sehingga menganggu itik-itik dikandang sebelah. Maka siitik pun berkata, "Mengapa begitu gelisah dan sedih, itukan lumrah hidup kita semua, segala yang hadir akan pergi juga. Jadi janganlah terlalu bersedih diatas kehilangan  sijaka"

Siayam-ayam betina kemudiannya dengan bersungguh-sungguh menjawab bahawa mereka gelisah dan sedih bukan kerana sijaka, ayam jantan harapan mereka yang telah disembelih semalam, tetapi kerana kini tiada siapa lagi akan berkokok dan memanggil sang matahari keluar (kerana mereka melihat, setiap kali sijaka, ayam jantan harapan mereka berkokok maka keluarlah sang matahari lalu adanya kehidupan mereka disiang hari dengan rezeki yang terbentang).

Siitik begitu terpegun mendengar kata-kata siayam-ayam betina tersebut...

Friday

Gurau - 2



Suatu hari, setelah selesai solai Jumaat, Imam masjid mengumumkan bahawa dia ingin menyampaikan 2 berita, satu berita baik dan satu berita buruk.

Imam masjid memulakan dengan menyampaikan berita baik: "Saya ingin mengumumkan bahawa pihak masjid kita kini telah memiliki cukup kewangan untuk membina masjid yang baru dan selesa untuk para makmum semua"

Kemudian Imam tersebut menyambungnya:  "Namun berita buruknya adalah bahawa segala kewangan yang pihak masjid miliki, masih lagi berada didalam saku-saku seluar kamu semua"




Disuatu masa, semasa Khutbah Jumaat, Imam menekan akan pentingnya mengucapkan Insyaallah bila hendak melakukan sesuatu.

Beberapa hari kemudian, Abdullah, salah seorang makmum yang mendengar khutbah tersebut bertemu dengan temannya ditengah perjalanan, lalu dia bertanya apa hajatnya. Temannya memberitahu bahawa dia mahu kepasar untuk membeli seekor lembu betina buat ladangnya.

Bila mendengar kata temannya, dia berpesan pada temannya sebagaimana yang didengarnya dari khutbah Jumaat untuk berkata, "Insyaallah saya akan membeli seekor lembu", namun temannya menyangkal dengan berkata, duit didalam poketnya manakala penjual lembu telah sedia menunggu, jadi mengapa dia perlu berkata Insyaallah, lalu pergi meninggalkan Abdullah.

Bila temannya sampai kepasar, maka terjadilah tawar-menawar antara temannya dengan sipenjual lembu. Setelah harga ditetapkan, maka temannya pun menyeluk poketnya untuk membayar, tetapi didapati bahawa poketnya berlubang dan duit yang ada didalamnya telah hilang. Terus dikala itu, teringat temannya akan pesanan Abdullah untuk sentiasa mengucapkan Insyaallah dan mengaku atas kesilapannya menyangkal untuk mengucapkan Insyaallah, Allah telah mentarbiahnya dengan menghilangkan duit yang dimiliki.

Dengan penuh kekesalan, temannya pun kembali dan dipertengahan jalan, Abdullah yang melihat temannya yang kelihatan begitu suram wajahnya bertanya, "Mana lembu yang mahu dibeli?"

"Insyaallah, saya akan membeli lembu tersebut minggu depan", jawab temanya dan berlalu pergi meninggalkan Abdullah dengan tergesa-gesa. Sesampai dirumah, isteri temannya juga bertanya, "Mana lembu yang hendak dibeli?", dijawap temannya, "Insyaallah, lain kali sahajalah saya membelinya", dan semenjak hari itu, tidak pernah luput dari bibir temannya untuk mengucapkan Insyaallah, walau untuk perkara sekecil mana pun.

Tuesday

Gurau - 1


Satu ketika, Rasulullah s.a.w dan para sahaba sedang makan buah kurma, biji-bijinya mereka sisihkan ditempatnya masing- masing. Akhirnya kemudian, sisa biji-biji kurma terkumpul lebih banyak disisi Ali r.a berbanding disisi Rasulullah s.a.w. Maka Ali r.a pun secara diam-diam memindahkan biji-biji kurma tersebut kesisi Rasulullah.

Kemudian Ali r.a dengan bergurau berkata, “ Wahai Nabi, engkau memakan kurma lebih banyak daripada aku. Lihatlah sisa biji-biji kurma yang berkumpul ditempatmu.”

Rasulullah s.a.w pun tersenyum dan menjawab, “Ali, kamulah yang memakan lebih banyak kurma. Aku memakan kurma dan masih menyisakan biji-bijinya. Sedangkan engkau, memakan kurma dengan biji-bijinya”. (HR. Bukhari)

Manakala dalam riwayat yang lain, Rasulullah s.a.w pernah bergurau dengan seorang wanita tua yang datang dan berkata, “Doakan aku kepada Allah agar Allah memasukkan aku kedalam syurga .”

Rasulullah s.a.w berkata kepadanya, “Wahai Ummu Fulan! Sesungguhnya syurga itu tidak dimasuki orang yang sudah tua .”

Maka wanita tua itu pun menangis. Lantas kemudian, Rasulullah s.a.w memahamkannya, bahawa disyurga tiada orang tua kerana ketika dia memasuki syurga nanti, tidak akan masuk syurga sebagai orang yang sudah berumur, tetapi akan berubah menjadi muda belia dan cantik.

Lalu Rasulullah s.a.w membaca firman Allah SWT:
“Sesungguhnya Kami menciptakan mereka (wanita-wanita syurga) itu dengan langsung, dan Kami jadikan mereka gadis-gadis perawan, penuh cinta lagi sebaya umurnya.” (Surah Al Waqi’ah: 35-37)

Niat merompak, tetapi diberi hidayat


A Long Island deli owner who held a robber at gun point, then let him go after giving him $40 and a loaf of bread, says he got ananonymous letter from the crook that included a $50 bill and a thank-you for saving him from a life of crime. During the robbery attempt, the failed thief brandished a baseball bat and demanded cash, but Sohail pulled out a 9mm rifle and disarmed the man, who pleaded for his life on his knees before the deli counter, crying, "I'm sorry! I'm sorry!" and tear fully claiming his family had fallen on hard times.


The mysterious writer apologized to his would-be victim, Mohammad Sohail, saying,"First of all I would like to say I am sorry at the time I had no money, no food on the table and no job and nothing for my family."


Similar to comments he made on his knees during the incident last May,he said he realized that trying to rob the store with a baseball bat"was wrong but I had [no] choice. I needed to feed my family."


The letter claimed, "When you had that gun to my head I was 100%that I was going to die," and said he begged to convert to Islam at that moment only because he feared death. But the letter-writer said he actually did convert, "decided to become a true Muslim," and turned his life around after Sohail, 47, spared his life.


"Now I have a new child and good job make good money staying out oftrouble and taking care of my family. You gave me forty dollars thank you for sparing my life and because of that you change my life."


The letter was signed in type: "Your Muslim Brother."


"That's the same guy I gave $40 to," said Sohail, 62, displaying the typewritten letter at his Shirley Express deli yesterday. There was no return address.


"I'm really thrilled," said Sohail. "I'm very happy for that guy, because he is now doing good for the community. "He has a job and he is a good person. I really feel great. Thank God he's doing good. He's got a new baby and he's not in jail," said Sohail.


"When you do good things for somebody, it comes back to you. I gave him $40 and he sent me back $50. It was a good investment," Sohail laughed.



Saturday

Eid adha Mubarak





لَبَّيْكَ اللَّھُمَّ لَبَّيْك، لَبَّيْكَ لاَ شَرِيْكَ لَكَ لَبَّيْك،
إِنَّ الْحَمْدَ وَ النِّعْمَةَ لَكَ وَ الْمُلْكُ لاَ شَرِيْكَ لَك
Labbaik Allahumma Labbaik, Labbaika la scharika laka
Labbaik, Innal hamda wanni‘mata laka walmulk La
scharika lak

Friday

Enter Kaabah


Aa'isha r.anha says: 'I very much wanted to enter the Kaaba to perform salaat inside it. Rasulullah s.a.w then took me by the hand and said: 'Perform the salaat you desire in this hateem for verily your people, the Quraish left this section of the Kaaba outside it when they rebuilt the Kaaba.



It is mustahab to enter the Kaaba. This is one of the places where duaa is accepted and answered. However, it is never permissible for anyone to enter through the giving of bribes. When the Quraish rebuilt the Kaaba they lifted the roof quite high and raised the door so high that one cannot enter the Kaaba without a staircase. Rasulullah s.a.w wanted to rebuild the Kaaba according to the same plan as it had been before. Hence he said to Aa'isha r.anha: 'These Arabs have only recently entered Islam; It is possible that their feelings may become roused and sentiments excited, as a result of the demolition of the Kaaba; if it was not for this I would rebuilt the Kaaba, and I would have included the hateem in the Kaaba: and I would have made two doors. One from which people could enter and leave from the other; and I would have lowered the door of the Kaaba to the ground: 'Your people raised the door of the Kaaba so that they admit only these whom they prefer.'


According to another hadith Rasulullah s.a.w said to Aa'isha r.anha: 'Your people did not do the roper thing when erecting the Kaaba, if we were not so near to the times of disbelief, I would again include this section into the Kaaba; the section they have left outside; rebuilt, this should be included. Rasulullah s.a.w then measured off a further seven feet'. This was the cause of Abdullah bin Zubair r.a increasing the size of the Kaaba when he rebuilt it. So actually Ibn Zubair r.a accomplished what Rasulullah s.a.w himself had desired. Later under Abdul Malik bin Marwaan , Hijjaaj had the Kaaba restored to its pre-Islamic structure.
No matter what niyyat prompted Hajjaj, one can to day still feel thankful that it is made so easy for anyone who wishes to be inside the Kaaba. No bribe to be given to enter into the hateem. Here one may enter at any time to his heart delight, pray there and make his special supplication to Allah. Being in the hateem, means being inside the Kaaba. For this reason Rasulullah s.a.w told Aa'isha r.anha to say her prayers here. Further, it becomes exceedingly difficult for females to enter the Kaaba. This hateem simplifies matters for them. Be very careful of your conduct inside the Kaaba. The ulama have stated that on entering the Kaaba, one's conduct should be one of utmost respect, upholding the great dignity of the place. It is best to go bare feet without socks, and to bath before entry. It is best to enter with great humility and to enter crying, with tears streaming down.
One saintly man was once asked: 'Did you ever enter the Kaaba? He said: "I do not consider my feet worthy of being allowed to walk around the Holy House of my Lord, so how can, consider them worthy of entering his Holy House? I know where these two have been going and coming, and I also know for which bad intentions they went." (Ithaaf)
Ghalib the poet said:
'With what face O Ghalib, shall you appear before the Kaaba. Have you no shame no fear.'
Some ulama (e.g. Nawawi and Ithaaf) have laid great emphasis on the following two points against which people entering the Kaaba should watch. Firstly there is a ring on the wall opposite the door of the Kaaba. Ignorant ones have called it the Urwatul Wuthqa- the handle of strength. Having touched it they considered themselves 'possessors of the strong handle' which is pure nonsense. Secondly there is a peg in the center of the floor of the Ka'ba. This has been called the 'navel of the earth', by ignorant people. On entering the Ka'ba they used to rub their navels against it. This too is pure nonsense and ignorance.
- From Fadhail Hajj by Maulana Zakariya rah.

Sunday

Pemahaman - 6



Dalam kehidupan yang dilalui seharian, wajar sahaja terdapatnya sesuatu perkara yang menjadi keutamaan dibandingkan dengan perkara-perkara yang lain dan semestinya dikedepankan biarpun sebenarnya, perkara-parkara lain juga adalah dalam senarai suatu kewajaran. Hatta, perkara-perkara yang menjadi keutamaan ini kekadang dilihat melangkau atau mengatasi perkara-perkara yang diwaktu lain adalah suatu perintah wajib didalam usul fiqf seperti contohnya diwaktu yang begitu darurat, daging haiwan yang haram dimakan, menjadi halal atas keutamaan menyelamatkan nyawa dari kebuluran.

Keadaan dimana suatu perkara menjadi keutamaan dibandingkan dengan perkara-perkara yang lain sebenarnya berlaku saban waktu dalam kehidupan 24 jam seharian seorang muslim seperti bekerja mencari rezeki yang halal adalah keutamaan namun solat fardu 5 waktu adalah begitu jauh utamanya dari bekerja, lantas dari itu, seorang muslim menjadi kewajipan bagi dirinya bersolat fardu tidak kira dimana dirinya bekerja (solat fardu tersebut hanya mengambil beberapa minit dan boleh dilakukan selama mana waktu solat ada). Ini kerana, keutamaan solat fardu 5 waktu adalah menduduki tangga yang kedua selepas seseorang tersebut menyebut kalimah syahadah hatta dizaman nabi, sebaik sahaja seseorang memeluk agama Islam, yang utama diajarkan adalah thaharah dan bersolat.

Dan tentulah, kalimah syahadah itu sendiri menjadi keutamaan pada segala yang ada, dimana keutamaan bererti juga memahami apa kandungan kalimah tersebut dan bersaksi dengan sebenar-benar saksi akan penyataan diatas syahadahnya. Lantaran itu, tidak kira samada seorang tersebut ulama, awam mahupun umarak, semuanya wajib berusaha keatas kalimah ini, iaitu keatas iman dan yakin mereka. Atas keutamaan ini juga, semuanya wajar memberi masa saban waktu untuk mencapai pengertian sebenar iman dan yakin mereka.

Sebagaimana juga, berusaha keatas iman dengan dakwah adalah lebih utama daripada usaha mendapat kekuasaan pemerintah, hatta objek utama sebenarnya mendapat kekuasaan pemerintah buat kaum muslimin adalah agar usaha keatas iman dapat dilaksanakan dengan aman (sebagaimana dizaman Nabi dan para sahaba, terutama dalam mana keadaan mereka dizalimi kerana melaksanakan keIslaman mereka). Lantaran itu, mereka yang hanya berusaha dengan segala helahnya untuk mencapai kekuasaan dengan membelakangi usaha keatas iman adalah perjuangan yang sia-sia dan tiada nilai disisi Allah.

Berbalik kepada keutamaan sesuatu mengatasi yang lain, ianya disebut sebagai Fiqh Awlawiyat yang mana awlawiyat adalah dari perkataan awla bermakna paling utama, paling afdal atau paling penting. Dari itu, makna fiqh awlawiyat adalah memahami sesuatu yang paling utama daripada yang lain, dengan keadaan wajar didahulukan daripada perkara-perkara yang lain, sesuai dengan masa dan tempat pelaksanaannya.

Dalam pelaksanaan keatas fiqh awlawiyat, selain daripada pemahaman akan usul fiqh itu sendiri seperti apa itu fardu ain dan fardu kifayah serta juga akan letaknya hukum-hukum buat sesuatu sesuai dengan masa dan tempatnya, iainya juga dalam pertimbangan apa itu kemaslahatan dan apa itu kemudaratan. Kemaslahatan adalah kepentingan sesuatu perkara-perkara yang membawa kepada kebaikan pada diri serta ummah manakala kemudaratan adalah perkara-perkara yang membawa kepada keosakan pada diri mahupun pada ummah seterusnya.

Pertimbangan keatas kemaslahatan contohnya adalah berupa mendahulukan sesuatu yang jelas kepentingan atau kebaikannya, mendahulukan sesuatu yang jelas membawa lebih besar kebaikannya, mendahulukan sesuatu yang kebaikannya membawa kepada sesuatu yang berterusan atau berkaitan dengan sesuatu yang lain pula dan seterusnya.

Manakala pertimbangan keatas kemudaratan contohnya adalah menghindari sesuatu yang jelas membawa kerosakan, membelakangi sesuatu yang biarpun ianya kelihatan sebagai keutamaan lantaran kesan buruk yang lebih besar akan terjadi, melaksanakan sesuatu yang dilihat ada bahaya khusus padanya namun dengannya dapat menghindari bahaya yang lebih besar dan seterusnya.


Bersambung...

Friday

Pemahaman - 5




Usul fiqh bukan sahaja penting dalam memahami setiap hukum-hukum buat perlaksanaan dalam kehidupan 24 jam seharian sebagai seorang muslim, ianya juga buat sempadan dalam menghukum pihak-pihak lain. Contohnya, seseorang yang sebelum ini, hidupnya jauh dari agama atau jauh dari sunnah nabi, kemudian mendapat hidayat dan melaksanakan perintah Allah serta menghidupkan sunnah-sunnah Nabi dalam kehidupannya, namun lantaran tidak memahami usul fiqh, dirinya wajar sahaja menghukum sewenang-wenangnya pihak lain yang tidak seperti dirinya sebagai dholalah atau menentang sunnah nabi. Seperti bila dirinya melihat pihak lain tidak berjanggut, memakai baju labuh dari buku lali dan lain-lain, terus dirinya menghukum sekian-sekian hukuman berat pada pihak lain, hatta keperingkat mensyirikan pihak lain seperti dalam hal-hal menyambut maulid Nabi, tawasul dan lain-lain.


Sedangkan dengan memahami usul fiqh, instinbath al-ahkam (pengalian keatas hukum-hukum), maka dirinya memahami apa itu hukum-hukum berbentuk wajib, sunat, harus, makruh dan sebagainya seperti adanya ijtihad atas sesuatu perkara serta dalil-dalil penerangan atas sesuatu hukum-hukum tersebut.

Sebegitu juga dalam bab yang amat penting iaitu bab akidah (sebagaimana Imam Abu Hanifah rah. menamakan fiqh ul-akbar) ianya memerlukan bimbingan serta huraian yang lengkap dari ulama-ulama akidah, bukan penerangan semata-mata tafsiran diri sendiri tanpa panduan ulama-ulama akidah terdahulu. Kerana tanpa bimbingan ulama-ulama akidah, akan menyebabkan sesuatu pihak semudah-mudahnya mengkafirkan pihak lain seperti contohnya mengkafirkan kalangan muslim yang mempercayai Allah yang memberi kehidupan, makanan dan segalanya (Rububiyah) yang tidak bersolat atau beribadat kepada Allah, sedangkan kaum muslim tersebut tidak jatuh kafir, hanya jatuh dalam kategori muslim yang berdosa atau lemah imannya kerana meninggalkan perintah Allah (melainkan mereka menafikan bahawa solat itu adalah fardu, bukan atas seperti malas dan lain-lain).

Juga contohnya, pihak pemerintah yang tidak melaksanakan hudud, tetapi memahami bahawa hukum hudud itu adalah perintah namun diatas sesuatu faktor yang lain seperti kurang kefahaman untuk melaksanakannya atau tidak berani melaksanakannya kerana sebahagian besar nisbah rakyat termasuk pihak dibawahnya adalah bukan kalangan orang Islam yang mana sekiranya dilaksanakan juga, dikhuatiri akan dirampas kuasa pemerintah oleh pihak bukan Islam, pemerintah tersebut tidak jatuh kufur tetapi hanya lemah dari sudut pelaksanaan Islamnya, kerana pemerintah yang kufur adalah pemerintah yang menentang Islam atau pemerintah yang bukan dari kalangan orang Islam.

Lantaran itu, usul fiqh adalah amat penting dan menjadi kewajipan buat setiap muslim mukalaf mempelajarinya, mendalami serta mengamalkannya. Malah menjadi tanggung-jawab pihak berkuasa menyediakan ruang atau peluang untuk setiap muslim mukalaf dibawah pemerintahannya, dapat menguasai ilmu usul fiqh terutamanya diparas bab-bab yang asas.

Imam Abu Hanifah rah. menyatakan fiqh mencakupi segala bab seperti bab i`tiqadiyyat (akidah, keimanan), amaliyyat (pengamalan, zahir) serta wijdaniyyat (akhlak, batin) seperti dalam mazhab Hanafi yang dikenal dengan sebutan al-fiqh al-akbar, yang mana perkembangan fiqh pada era ini belum disusun sebagai sebuah disiplin ilmu tersendiri.

Manakala zaman kemudiannya , seperti era Imam Syafie, usul fiqh itu adalah lebih dalam kategori hukum-hukum syari yang bersifat amali (pengamalan) dan diperolehi melalui istinbath hukum berdasarkan dalil-dalail tafshili (terperinci).

Pada prinsip usul fiqh, setiap hukum diambil dari yang tersurat sebagaimana didalam al-Quran dan Hadis, namun sebegitu, terdapat juga yang tersirat didalam al-Quran dan Hadis yang memerlukan pemahaman yang mendalam akan urutan sesuatu peristiwa tersebut untuk mengungkapkan hukum-hukum darinya. Atas itu, maka pengambilan untuk sesuatu hukum tersebut terbahagi kepada:

1 – Dalil juz`i / tafshili, iaitu dalil-dalil terperinci berupa ayat-ayat wahyu yang menunjukkan hukum-hukum tertentu secara tersurat seperti ayat-ayat wahyu berkenaan dengan hukum wajib bersolat fardu atau berpuasa dibulan Ramadan, hukum haram berzina atau riba dan seterusnya pada hukum-hukum yang lain.

2 – Dalil kulli / ijmali, iaitu dalil umum yang menunjukkan ketentuan-ketentuan sesuatu hukum secara tersirat, yang merupakan bandingan-bandingan untuk meletakan kategori hukum pada sesuatu.

Seperti contohnya dalam sebuah hadis yang diriwayatkan oleh Ibnu Majah: ( لا ضرر ولا ضرار ), yang lebih kurang maknanya, tidak boleh melakukan kemudaratan, menunjukkan hukum tersirat haram terhadap sesuatu yang memudaratkan, dimana banyaknya hukum-hukum disabitkan dari dalil hadis ini seperti larangan menghisap rokok dan lain-lain.

Dalil pertama iaitu juz’i atau tafshili jelas merupakan kategori pertama dalam penetapan hukum namun begitu, dalil kedua iaitu kulli atau ijmali adalah juga suatu keutamaan dimana kedua-duanya merupakan metodologi untuk istinbath al-ahkam buat sesuatu hukum. Kedua-duanya amat berkaitan sebagaimana contohnya kaitan ayat yang memerintah memakan haiwan yang halal dengan kategori seterusnya atas hukum samaada daging haiwan tersebut menjadi makruh atau jatuh haram atas jalallah, iaitu haiwan yang menjadikan najis sebagai makanan asasinya. 

Bersambung...

Tuesday

Pemahaman - 4




Penyusunan dan pembukuan ilmu usul fiqh adalah amat penting bukan sahaja buat setiap muslim untuk memahami agama dan mengamalkannya, tetapi lebih dari itu, ia amat penting untuk menjadi kaedah buat para fuqaha agar tidak melakukan kesilapan dalam mengistinbatkan (menggali) hukum. Dengannya juga, para fuqaha dapat mengimbangi serta memandu pengetahuan mereka agar selari dengan para-para imam mujtahid terdahulu, para sahaba-sahabi serta seterusnya dengan Rasulullah s.a.w sendiri kerana usul fiqh melalui mazhab Ahlu Sunnah wal Jamaah adalah turutan dari itu.


Lantaran itu, sekiranya diperhatikan, objek penyusunan ilmu usul fiqh adalah lebih kepada mempertahankan asas-asas ilmu fiqh itu sendiri dengan memperdalami asas-asas tersebut dan seterusnya merupakan metodologi penetapan buat hukum-hukum dimana ini semua buat memudahkan untuk pengamalan umat Islam seterusnya. Dengan adanya penyusunan ilmu usul fiqh ini, generasi kemudian (terutama generasi selepas 3 kurun hijrah sehinggalah kehari ini, iaitu generasi yang telah amat jauh dari zaman Rasulullah s.a.w), tidak terkeliru atau tersilap dalam memahami asas-asas agama Islam itu sendiri.

Mempelajari usul fiqh adalah merupakan suatu kewajipan kepada semua mukalaf dari kalangan kaum muslim tidak kira lelaki atau wanita kerana dengannya, setiap individual muslim memahami apa dia kehendak Allah mengikut jalan Rasulullah s.a.w dalam 24 jam kehidupan sehariannya. Hatta, sedari usia kecil, setiap muslim wajar didedahkan kepadanya. Mungkin seseorang tersebut tidak berpeluang mempelajari keseluruhan bab-bab agama atau tidak mencapai status uztad mahupun status ulama, namun asas-asas agama yang tersemadi didalam usul fiqh, adalah tetap menjadi kewajipan bagi setiap muslim untuk mempelajari atau mendalami sedaya mungkin.

Ini kerana, dengan adanya pengetahuan asas pada usul fiqh biarpun minimum contohnya untuk bab-bab yang diperlukan dalam kehidupan seharian seperti bab taharah, bab solat dan lain-lain, mampu membantu diri insan tersebut mengamalkan ajaran agama Islam dan agama Islam adalah agama pengamalan, bukan hanya pembelajaran, pembukuan atau kefasihan. Sedang, seseorang tersebut boleh sahaja mencapai tahap ulama, menguasai segala cabang usul fiqh namun tanpa pengamalan keatas ilmu yang diketahui, dirinya adalah lebih hina dari mereka yang tidak beramal lantaran kejahilan.

Perkataan fiqh sendiri menurut istilah dikalangan ramai para ulama fiqh bererti ilmu tentang hukum syarak mengenai amali atau bersifat amali sebagaimana contohnya:

1) Fiqh adalah ilmu tentang hukum syara’ mengenai perbuatan (manusia) yang amali (praktikal) yang diperoleh melalui dalil-dalilnya yang tafsili.


(
العلم بالاحكا م الشرعية العملية المكتسبة من اد لتها التفصيلية
).Al ‘ilmu bil ahkamisy syar’iyyati al ‘amaliyati al muktasabati min adillatiha at tafshiliyyati (SyeikhTajuddin Ibnu as-Subky)

2) Fiqh adalah hukum syara’ yang amali diperoleh dengan cara istinbath (penetapan hukum) oleh para mujtahid dari dalil syara’ yang tafsili.


(الا حكا م الشر عية العملية التى استنبطها المجتهد و ن من الا دلة الشرعية التفصيلية).Al-ahkamusy syar’iyyati al ‘amaliyati al lati istinbathiha al mujtahiduna minal adillatisy syar’iyyati at tafshiliyyati. (Syeikh Zakariya al-Bari)

3) Fiqh adalah kumpulan hukum-hukum syara’ yang bersifat amali yang diambil dari dalil-dalil yang tafsili.


(مجمو عة الاحكا م الشرعية العملية المكتسبة من اد لتها التفصيلية).
Majmu’atul ahkamisy syar’iyyati al ‘amaliyyati al muktasabati min adillatiha at tafshiliyyati. (Syeikh Muhammad Abu Zahrah)


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Monday

Pemahaman - 3




Penyusunan ilmu usul fiqh pada kurun kedua hijrah ini seterusnya membawa kepada kemunculan mahzab-mazhab Ahlu Sunnah wal Jamaah yang dikenali dan diikuti hari ini. Mazhab adalah kumpulan pendapat mujtahid yang berupa hukum-hukum Islam, yang digali dari dalil-dalil syariat yang terperinci serta berbagai kaedah (qawa’id) dan landasan (usul) yang mendasari pendapat tersebut, yang saling terkait satu sama lain sehingga menjadi satu kesatuan yang utuh. Ada yang menyatakan, istilah mazhab mencakup dua hal iaitu pertamanya, sekumpulan hukum-hukum Islam yang digali oleh seorang imam mujtahid, dan keduanya adalah usul fiqh yang menjadi jalan (thariq) yang ditempuh mujtahid itu untuk menggali hukum-hukum Islam dari dalil-dalilnya yang terperinci.

Selepas zaman penyusunan ilmu usul fiqh, munculnya zaman tahrir, takhrij dan tarjih dalam mazhab fiqh. Tahrir, takhrij, dan tarjih adalah upaya yang dilakukan para ulama mengikut mazhab masing-masing dalam mengomentari, memperjelaskan dan mengulas pendapat para imam Mazhab mereka. Apatah lagi, kerana perbezaan yang memungkinkan perpecahan yang amat besar dikalangan umat Islam dari segi usul fiqh sekiranya dibenarkan terus berkembang fenomena mujtahid yang berkemampuan berijtihad dan mengembangkan mazhabnya sendiri. Atas itu, para ulama fiqh waktu itu, mengekalkan status mereka hanya pada tahap mujtahid fi al-mazhab (mujtahid yang melakukan ijtihad berdasarkan prinsip yang ada dalam mazhabnya)

Dan ternyata, 4 mazhab dalam Ahlu Sunnah wal Jamaah iaitu mazhab Hanafi, mazhab Maliki, mazhab Syafie dan mazhab Hambali telah mencukupi kerana sekiranya setiap ulama yang datang kemudian dan membawa mazhab-mazhab baru mereka, maka kekeliruan besar terjadi dikalangan umat Islam, terutama dalam hal yang mana, mazhab-mazhab baru tersebut cuba mengambil tempatnya dikalangan umat Islam dan ini tentunya menyebabkan pertelingkahan-pertelingkahan mahupun seterusnya kepada peperangan mazhab atas perbezaan-perbezaan yang dibawa.

Dalam hal 4 mazhab Ahlu Sunnah wal Jamaah, masing-masing menghormati masing yang lain, namun begitu, tentulah juga akan berlaku kekecohan, sekiranya mereka yang mengikut mazhab yang lain mendesak pengikut mazhab yang lain mengikut usul fiqh mereka. Lantaran itu, contohnya, mereka yang mengikut mazhab Maliki mengerakkan jari mereka pada tasyahud akhir tentunya tidak akan mendesak mereka yang mengikut mazhab Syafie atau mazhab Hanafi yang tidak mengerakkan jari ditasyahud akhir lantaran ulama-ulama Syafie atau Hanafi mempunyai dalil yang jelas atas itu. Semangat menghormati pada setiap mazhab dalam Ahlu Sunnah wal Jamaah ini telah terbina sekian lama.

Namun bayangkan, sekiranya, beratus-ratus mazhab yang timbul lantaran setiap ulama fiqh wajar sahaja berijtihad diatas pendapatnya sendiri dan menyusun segala usul fiqh mengikut pendapatnya sendiri, tentulah kekecuhan yang besar berlaku didalam umat hatta akan berlaku dalam suatu keluarga, siayah akan bertegang dengan anaknya lantaran usul fiqh yang amat berbeza yang diikuti oleh masing-masing. Hari ini pun telah menyaksikan bagaimana atas perbezaan politik dunia yang dimiliki oleh individual yang berbeza menyebabkan mereka bermasam muka atau sentiasa menaruh prasangka, inikan pula usul fiqh yang merupakan cara hidup-mati setiap individual. 

Sebegitu juga, bagaimanakah setiap individual umat Islam mampu belajar dan memahami apa yang dipelajari adalah hak, sekiranya setiap musim, akan ditemuinya dalil-dalil lain yang menyatakan apa yang dipelajari adalah suatu kesilapan? Bagaimanakah terjadi seterusnya kepada seluruh sistem pembelajaran umat Islam sekiranya setiap tahun, dirombak atas ijtihad-ijtihad baru para ulama fiqh yang menampilkan mazhab masing-masing?


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