Monday

`Umar ibn al-Khattab - 1

He, may Allah be pleased with him, was `Umar ibn al-Khattab ibn Nufail ibn `Abdu'l-`Uzza ibn Riyah ibn Qart ibn Razah ibn `Adi ibn Ka`b ibn Lu`ayy, Amir al- Muminin, Abu Hafs, al-Qurashi, al-`Adawi, al-Faruq.

He accepted Islam in the sixth year of prophecy when he was twenty-seven years old, says adh-Dhahabi.
An-Nawawi says: `Umar was born thirteen years after the Elephant, he was one of the nobility of Quraysh, and he had the role of ambassador in the Jahiliyyah; Quraysh, whenever war broke out among them or between them and others, would send him as an ambassador, i.e. a messenger, and when someone called them to judgement often over a matter of standing or lineage then they sent him as a response to that.
He accepted Islam very early on, after forty other men and eleven women. Some say that it was after thirty-nine men and twenty-three women, and some say, after forty-five men and eleven women. But it was only after he accepted Islam that Islam was shown openly in Makkah and the Muslims rejoiced in him.
He said: He was one of the outstripping first ones, one of the ten for whom it was witnessed that they were for the Garden, one of the khulafa' who took the right way, one of the in-laws of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, one of the great men of knowledge of the Companions and one of their abstinent people.

Five hundred and thirty-nine hadith from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, are related from him. `Uthman ibn `Affan narrated from him, `Ali (ibn Abi Talib), Talhah (ibn 'Ubaydillah), Sa`d (ibn Abi Waqqas), `Abd ar-Rahman ibn `Auf, Ibn Mas`ud, Abu Dharr, 'Amr ibn 'Abasah and his son `Abdullah, Ibn `Abbas, Ibn az-Zubayr, Anas, Abu Hurairah, 'Amr ibn al-'As, Abu Musa al-Ash'ari, al-Bara' ibn 'Azib, Abu Sa'id al-Khudri, and a great number of the Companions and others, may Allah be pleased with them.
I say: I attach here some sections in which there are some sections of interest connected to his biography.

 

The reports on his acceptance of Islam

Ibn `Umar narrated that: The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'O Allah, strengthen Islam with whoever is more beloved to You of these two men: `Umar ibn al-Khattab or Abu Jahl ibn Hisham.' This has been narrated from hadith of Ibn Mas`ud and Anas, may Allah be pleased with them.
Ibn `Abbas related that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'O Allah, strengthen Islam by `Umar ibn al-Khattab especially.' This has been narrated in hadith of Abu Bakr as-Siddiq and Thawban.

`Umar said: I went out to confront the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and found that he had preceded me to the mosque (of Makkah). I stood behind him and he began by reciting Suratu'l-Haqqah. I was astonished by the composition of the Qur'an, so I said, 'By Allah, this is a poet as Quraysh say.' Then he recited, 'It is truly the saying of a noble messenger, and it is not the saying of a poet, how little you believe...' (Qur'an 69: 40) to the end of the ayah, and Islam came about in my heart.
Jabir said: The beginning of `Umar's Islam was that `Umar said, 'My sister's time to give birth came to her at night so I went out of the house, and entered the precincts of the Ka`bah. Then the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came and entered the hijr (the low-walled, semi-circular area to one end of the Ka`bah) and on him there were two rough cloths. He prayed to Allah as much as Allah willed, then he turned away and I heard something I had not heard the like of. He went out and I followed him and he said, "Who is this?" I said, "`Umar." He said, "`Umar, will you not leave me alone, either by night or by day?" I became afraid that he might supplicate against me, so I said, "I witness that there is no god but Allah and that you are the Messenger of Allah." He said, "`Umar, keep it secret." I said, "No, by the One Who sent you with the truth, I will openly declare it just as I openly declared idolatry."' Anas, may Allah be pleased with him, said: `Umar went out wearing his sword, and a man from Bani Zuhrah met him and said, 'Where do you intend going, `Umar?' He said, 'I want to kill Muhammad.' He said, 'How will you be safe from Bani Hashim and Bani Zuhrah if you have killed Muhammad?' He said, 'I can only believe that you have converted.' He said, 'Shall I show you something astonishing; your brother-in-law and your sister have converted and abandoned your deen.' `Umar walked on and came to the two of them while Khabbab was with them. When he heard the sound of `Umar he hid in the house, and then he (`Umar) entered and said, 'What is this murmur of lowered voices?' They had been reciting Taha. They said, 'Nothing but some conversation which we were holding.' He said, 'Perhaps you two have converted?' His brother-in-law said to him, '`Umar, what if the truth were outside of your deen?' So `Umar leapt upon him and struck him severely. His sister came to push him away from her husband and he struck her a blow with his hand so that her face bled. Then she said, and she was angry, 'And if the truth were outside of your deen? I witness that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is His slave and His Messenger.' `Umar said, 'Give me the writing which you have and I will read it,'and `Umar used to read. His sister said to him, 'You are dirty, and no-one reads it but the purified (so stand and bathe yourself or perform wudu').' He stood and performed wudu', then he took the writing and read Taha until it came to, 'Truly I, I am Allah there is no god except Me, so worship Me and establish the prayer for My remembrance.' (Qur'an 20: 14). `Umar said, 'Show me the way to Muhammad.' When Khabbab heard the words of `Umar he came out and said, 'Rejoice, `Umar! Because I hope that you are the (answer to the) supplication which the Messenger of Allah made for you on the night of Thursday, "O Allah, strengthen Islam with `Umar ibn al-Khattab or with 'Amr ibn Hisham."' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was in the lower part of the house which was at the foot of Safa and `Umar went off until he came to the house, at the door of which were Hamzah, Talhah and others. Hamzah said, 'This is `Umar; If Allah wants good for him he will become a Muslim; and if He wishes other than that, then killing him will be a little thing for us.' He said: And the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was inside receiving revelation. He came out when `Umar arrived, took hold of the folds of his clothes and the straps of his sword, and said, 'You won't give up, `Umar, until Allah visits you with disgrace and punishment like he did al-Walid ibn al-Mughirah.' `Umar said, 'I witness that there is no god but Allah and that you are the slave of Allah and His Messenger.'

Aslam said: `Umar said to us, 'I was the most severe of people against the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Then one hot day at midday I was in one of the pathways of Makkah, and a man met me and said, "I am amazed at you, Ibn al-Khattab. You claim that you are like this and like this, and this matter has entered your own house." I said, "What is that?" He said, "Your sister has become a Muslim." So I went back in a fury and struck the door. Someone said, "Who is it?" I said, "`Umar." They hurried and hid from me. They had been reciting a page which they had and they abandoned it and forgot it. My sister got up to open the door, and I said to her, "Enemy of her own self, have you converted?" I struck her upon the head with something that I had in my hand so that the blood flowed and she cried. She said, "Ibn al-Khattab, whatever you are going to do, then do it, for I have converted." I entered and sat down on the couch. Then I glanced at the page and said, "What is this? Give it to me." She said, "You are not one of its people, you don't clean yourself after intercourse, and this is a writing which none touches except for those who have purified themselves." But I wouldn't give up until she gave it to me. I opened it and there in it was, "In the name of Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate." When I passed by one of the names of Allah, exalted is He, I became afraid of it and I put down the page. Then I came back to myself and picked up the page and there in it was, "There glorifies Allah that which is in the heavens and the earth," and I became afraid. I read up until, "believe in Allah and His messenger!" (Qur'an 57: 1-7) and so I said, "I witness that there is no god but Allah," and so they all came out to me hastily, saying, "Allahu Akbar!" and said, "Rejoice! Because the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, supplicated on Monday and said, 'O Allah strengthen Your deen with whoever is the more beloved of the two men to You, either Abu Jahl ibn Hisham or `Umar.'" They directed me to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in a house at the foot of As-Safa, and I went to it and knocked on the door. They said, "Who is it?" I said, "Ibn al-Khattab." They knew my severity against the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, so nobody moved to open the door until he said, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "Open it for him." They opened it for me, two men grabbed hold of me by the upper arms and brought me to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who said, "Leave him alone." Then he grabbed me by my shirt and dragged me forcibly towards him and said, "Accept Islam, Ibn al-Khattab. O Allah guide him," and I bore witness and the Muslims said, "Allahu Akbar!" so loudly that it was heard in the valleys of Makkah.
They had been concealing themselves. I did not wish to see a man striking and being struck but that I experienced it myself and none of that touched me. I went to my uncle Abu Jahl ibn Hisham, who was one of the nobility, and knocked on his door. He said, "Who is it?" I said, "Ibn al-Khattab, and I have converted." He said, "Don't do it," and slammed the door on me. I said, "This isn't anything," and went to one of the great ones of Quraysh, called out to him and he came out to me. I said to him the same as I had said to my uncle, he said to me the same as my uncle had said to me, went in and slammed the door on me. I said, "This isn't anything, the Muslims are being struck and I am not being struck." A man said to me, "Would you like your acceptance of Islam to be known?" I said, "Yes." He said, "When people are seated in the hijr go to so-and-so, a man who cannot possibly conceal a secret, and say to him, just between yourself and him, 'I have converted,' for it is very rarely that he has ever concealed a secret." I went and people had already gathered in the hijr. I said, just between me and him, "I have converted." He said, "Did you really do that?" I said, "Yes." He cried at the top of his voice, "Ibn al-Khattab has converted." They ran up to me; I was hitting them, they were hitting me and people gathered around me. Then my uncle said, "What is this group?" Someone said, "`Umar has converted." He stood upon the hijr and indicated with the palm of his hand, "I have helped the son of my sister." They dispersed from around me. I did not want to have seen any of the Muslims being struck and striking without seeing it myself, so I said, "This which has happened to me is nothing." I went to my uncle and said, "Your help is returned to you," and I continued to hit and be hit until Allah strengthened Islam.'

Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with both of them, said: I asked `Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, 'For what reason were you called Al-Faruq?' He said, 'Hamzah accepted Islam three days before me. I went to the mosque, and Abu Jahl hurried up to abuse the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and Hamzah was told about it. He took his bow and came to the mosque, up to the circle of Quraysh in which Abu Jahl was. He leant upon his bow facing Abu Jahl and looked at him, and Abu Jahl recognised the mischief in his face, and said, "What is wrong with you, Abu `Umarah?" He raised his bow and with it struck one of the veins in his neck, cutting it so that blood flowed. Quraysh rectified that from fear of mischief and trouble.' He said, 'The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was concealed in the house of Al-Arqam al-Makhzumi so Hamzah went off and accepted Islam. I went out three days after him and there was so-and-so son of so-and-so al-Makhzumi, and I said to him, "Do you yearn to get out of the deen of your ancestors and follow the deen of Muhammad?" He said, "If I did, then one who has much greater right upon you has also done it." I said, "Who is he?" He said, "Your sister and your brother in-law." I went off, found the door locked and heard the murmur of lowered voices. Then the door was opened for me. I entered and said, "What is this I hear with you?" They said, "You didn't hear anything," and the conversation continued between us until I took hold of my brother in-law's head and hit him, making him bleed. My sister stood up to me and took hold of my head and said, "That has happened despite you." I was ashamed when I saw the blood, so I sat down and said, "Show me this writing." My sister said, "No-one touches it except for the purified. If you are truthful then get up and bathe yourself." I got up and bathed myself, then I returned and sat down. They brought me a page in which was, "In the name of Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate." I said, "Wholesome and pure names!" "Taha. We have not revealed the Qur'an to you for you to grieve, ..." up to His words, "... His are the most beautiful names." (Qur'an 1-8). It became a great matter in my heart and I said, "From this Quraysh have fled!" I accepted Islam and said, "Where is the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace?" She said, "He is in the house of al-Arqam." I went to the house and knocked on the door. The people gathered and Hamzah said to them, "What is wrong with you." They said, "`Umar." He said, "And if it is `Umar? Open the door for him. If he has accepted, then we will accept that from him, and if he turns his back, we will kill him." The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, heard that and came out. I pronounced the shahadah and the people of the house said, "Allahu Akbar!" in such a way that the people of Makkah heard it. I said, "Messenger of Allah, are we not upon the truth?" He said, "Of course." I said, "Why do we conceal it?" We went out in two ranks, in one of which I was and in the other Hamzah, until we entered the mosque, and Quraysh looked at me and at Hamzah. There came upon them gloom and depression the like of which had never before come upon them. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, named me on that day "al-Faruq" because Islam had been shown openly and a separation made between the truth and falsehood.'

Dhakwan said: I said to `A'ishah, 'Who named `Umar "al-Faruq"?' She said, 'The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.' Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with them both, said: When `Umar accepted Islam, then Jibril descended and said, 'Muhammad, the inhabitants of heaven rejoice in `Umar's acceptance of Islam." Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with them both, said: When `Umar accepted Islam, the idolators said, 'The people have been split in half from us today,' and Allah revealed, 'O Prophet, Allah is enough for you; and whoever follows you of the believers.' (Qur'an 8: 64).

Ibn Mas`ud, may Allah be pleased with him, said: We did not cease to become mighty since the acceptance of Islam by `Umar.

Ibn Mas`ud, may Allah be pleased with him, said: The Islam of `Umar was an opening, his emigration was a help and his imamate was a mercy. I saw us unable to pray towards the House until `Umar accepted Islam. When `Umar accepted Islam, he fought them until they left us alone and we prayed.
Hudhayfah said: When `Umar accepted Islam, Islam was like the man advancing towards you, only increasing in nearness. When `Umar was killed, Islam was like the man backing away from you, only increasing in distance.

Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with them both, said: The first man to be open about Islam was `Umar ibn al-Khattab.

Suhaib said: When `Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, accepted Islam, he was open about it, invited people to it openly; we sat around the House in circles, we made circuits around the House, we took our rights from whoever was tough with us, and we retaliated against him for some of what he brought us.
Aslam the freed slave of `Umar said: `Umar accepted Islam in Dhu'l-Hijjah of the sixth year of prophethood while he was twenty-six years old.

 

His emigration

`Ali said: I don't know of anyone who didn't emigrate in secret except for `Umar ibn al-Khattab; because when he wanted to emigrate he strapped on his sword, put his bow over his shoulder, carried his arrows in his hand, and came to the Ka`bah where the nobles of Quraysh were in the courtyard. He performed seven circuits, and then prayed two raka'at at the Station (of Ibrahim). Then he approached their circle one step at a time and said, "What ugly faces! Whoever wishes to bereave his mother, orphan his children and widow his wife then let him meet me behind this valley." Not one of them followed him.

Al-Bara', may Allah be pleased with him, said: The first of the Muhajirun who came to us was Mus'ab ibn 'Umayr, then Ibn Umm Maktum, then `Umar ibn al-Khattab mounted among twenty others. We said, 'What has the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, done?' He said, 'He is right behind me.' Then later, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came and Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, along with him.

An-Nawawi said: `Umar attended, along with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, all of the battles, and he was one of those who stood firm beside him on the Day of Uhud.

 

The hadith on his merit, other than those already quoted in the chapter on as-Siddiq

Abu Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with him, said: The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'While I was asleep I saw myself in the Garden, and there was a woman performing wudu' beside a palace. I said, "Whose is this palace?" They said, "It belongs to `Umar." Then I remembered your jealousy and turned away.' `Umar wept and said, 'Could I be jealous of you, Messenger of Allah?' Ibn `Umar narrated that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'While I was asleep I drank meaning milk until I saw satiation flowing in my nails, and then I passed it to `Umar.' They said, 'How did you interpret it, Messenger of Allah?' He said, 'Knowledge.' Abu Sa'id al-Khudri, may Allah be pleased with him, said: I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saying, 'While I was sleeping I saw people being shown to me and they had shirts on. Some of them reached to the breast, and some of them reached lower than that. `Umar was shown to me and he had on a shirt which he was dragging along.' They said, 'How did you interpret it, Messenger of Allah?' He said, 'The deen.' Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas said: The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Ibn al-Khattab, by Him in Whose hand is my self, the shaytan never met you travelling on a road but that he would travel on a road other than your road.' Abu Hurairah said: The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'There were in the nations before you people who were inspired, and if there is one in my ummah it is `Umar.' Ibn `Umar related that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Allah has put the truth upon `Umar's tongue and (in) his heart.' Ibn `Umar said: No affair ever happened among people and they spoke about it and `Umar spoke about it but that the Qur'an was revealed confirming what `Umar said.

'Uqbah ibn 'Amir said: The Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family and grant them peace, said, 'If there were to be a prophet after me it would be `Umar ibn al-Khattab.' This hadith has been narrated by Abu Sa'id al-Khudri, 'Ismah ibn Malik and Ibn `Umar.

`A'ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, said: The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'I am looking at the shaytans of the Jinn and men who have fled from `Umar.' Ubayy ibn Ka`b said: The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'The first one whom the Truth will shake hands with is `Umar, the first He will greet (with the greeting of peace), and the first He will take by the hand and enter into the Garden.'

Abu Dharr said: The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Truly Allah has placed the truth upon the tongue of `Umar, it speaks by him (or he speaks by it).' Abu Hurairah said: The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Truly Allah has placed the truth on the tongue of `Umar and (in) his heart.' This hadith has been narrated by `Umar ibn al-Khattab, Bilal, Mu'awiyah ibn Abi Sufyan, `A'ishah, and Ibn `Umar, may Allah be pleased with them.

`Ali,may Allah be pleased with him, said: We, the Companions of Muhammad, used not to doubt that the sakinah (tranquility or Divine presence) spoke by the tongue of `Umar.

Ibn `Umar said: The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, '`Umar is the lamp of the people of the Garden.' This hadith was narrated by Abu Hurairah and As-Sa'b ibn Juththamah.

`Uthman ibn Madh'un said: The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'This one is the lock upon the fitnah (sedition and trials),' and he indicated `Umar with his hand. 'There will remain a door strongly locked between you and the fitnah as long as this one lives among you.' Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with both him and his father, said: Jibril came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, 'Greet `Umar with the greeting of peace and inform him that his anger is might and his good pleasure is judgement.' `A'ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, said that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'The shaytan is afraid of `Umar.' Buraydah said that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'The shaytan is afraid of you, `Umar.' Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with both of them (i.e. Ibn `Abbas and his father `Abbas), said: The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'There is no angel in the heaven that does not respect `Umar, and no shaytan on the earth but that he is afraid of `Umar.' Abu Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with him, said: The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Allah glories in the people of `Arafah generally and He glories in `Umar particularly.' It has been narrated in a hadith of Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with them both.

Al-Fadl ibn `Abbas said: The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'The truth, after me, is with `Umar wherever he is.' Ibn `Umar and Abu Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with both of them, said: The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'While I was asleep I saw myself at a well upon which was a bucket, so I drew from it as long as Allah willed. Then later Abu Bakr took it and drew a full bucket or two, and in his drawing there was some weakness, and Allah will forgive him. Then `Umar ibn al-Khattab came and drew water and it became transformed in his hand into a large bucket, and I have not seen a chief of the people do wonderful deeds such as he did, until the people had satisfied their thirst and settled down (there by the water).' An-Nawawi said in his Tahdhib: The men of knowledge say, 'This points to the khilafahs of Abu Bakr and `Umar, and to the great number of conquests and the victory of Islam in the time of `Umar.' Sadisah said: The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'The shaytan has not met `Umar since he accepted Islam but that he fell upon his face.' This hadith has been narrated also by Sadisah from Hafsah.

Ubayy ibn Ka`b said: The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Jibril said to me, "Let Islam weep over the death of `Umar."' Abu Sa'id al-Khudri said: The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Whoever is angry with `Umar is angry with me. Whoever loves `Umar loves me. Allah glories in the people on the evening of `Arafah generally, and He glories in `Umar particularly. Allah has not sent a prophet except that he put among his ummah an inspired man and if there is one such in my ummah then it is `Umar.' They said, 'Prophet of Allah, how inspired?' He said, 'The angels speak by his tongue.'

 

Sayings of the Companions and first generations on him

Abu Bakr as-Siddiq, may Allah be pleased with him, said: There is not on the face of the earth a man more beloved to me than `Umar.

Someone said to Abu Bakr during his (last) illness, 'What will you say to your Lord, when you have appointed `Umar?' He said, 'I will say to Him, "I have appointed over them the best of them."' `Ali,may Allah be pleased with him, said: When the right-acting ones are mentioned then begin with `Umar. We did not think it unlikely that as-Sakinah (the Divine Presence) spoke with the tongue of `Umar.

Ibn `Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, said: I have never seen anyone after the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, from the time he died, more perceptive and more liberally generous than `Umar.
Ibn Mas`ud, may Allah be pleased with him, said: Even if the knowledge of `Umar were to be put in one scale of a balance and the knowledge of every living being on the earth were put in the other scale, the knowledge of `Umar would outweigh their knowledge. They used to hold the view that he had gone (i.e. died) with nine-tenths of knowledge.

Hudhayfah, may Allah be pleased with him, said: It is as if the knowledge of mankind was concealed in the understanding of `Umar.

Hudhayfah, may Allah be pleased with him, said: By Allah, I do not know a man whom the blame of the one who blames, for the sake of Allah, does not overcome, except for `Umar.
`A'ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, saidand she mentioned `Umar'He was, by Allah, skilful in managing affairs, absolutely unique.' Mu'awiyah, may Allah be pleased with him, said: As for Abu Bakr, he did not want the world and it did not want him. As for `Umar, the world wanted him but he did not want it. As for us, we have rolled over in it (like an animal in the dust).

Jabir, may Allah be pleased with him, said: `Ali entered upon `Umarand he was shroudedand said, 'The mercy of Allah upon you! There is no-one I would prefer to meet Allah with that which is in his page (the record of his actions), after the companionship of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, than this shrouded one.' Ibn Mas`ud, may Allah be pleased with him, said: When the right-acting ones are remembered, then begin with `Umar. Truly `Umar was the most knowledgeable of us of the Book of Allah, and the most understanding (literally: having the most fiqh) of us of the deen of Allah, exalted is He.
Ibn `Abbas was asked about Abu Bakr and he said, 'He was the good, all of it.' He was asked about `Umar and said, 'He was like the apprehensive bird which thinks that on every path there is a snare to catch it.' He was asked about `Ali and he said, 'He was full of resolve, sound judgement, knowledge and valour.' 'Umayr ibn Rabi'ah related that `Umar ibn al-Khattab said to Ka`b al-Ahbar, 'How do you find my description?' He said, 'I find your description to be a horn of iron.' He asked, 'What is a horn of iron?' He said, 'A strong commander who, for the sake of Allah, the censure of the one who blames does not overcome.' He said, 'Then what?' He said, 'There will be after you a khalifah whom a wrong-doing group will kill.' He said, 'Then what?' He said, 'Then there will be the trial (affliction).' Ibn Mas`ud, may Allah be pleased with him, said: `Umar ibn al-Khattab excelled people in four: the affair of the prisoners on the Day of Badr, he ordered that they should be killed and Allah revealed, 'If it were not for a decree of Allah which had preceded ...' (Qur'an 8: 68) to the end of the ayah; and in the matter of the hijab, he ordered the women of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to veil themselves, so Zaynab said to him, 'And really you are responsible over us Ibn al-Khattab, and the revelation descends upon us in our houses?' So Allah revealed, 'Then if you ask them for some item ...' (Qur'an 33: 53) to the end of the ayah; and by the supplication of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, 'O Allah, help Islam with `Umar'; and in his view of Abu Bakr, for he was the first one to pledge allegiance to him.

Mujahid said: We used to say that the shaytans were chained and shackled during the amirate of `Umar, then when he was struck they spread abroad.

Salim ibn `Abdullah said: News of `Umar was slow in reaching Abu Musa so he went to a woman who had a shaytan in her, and asked her about him. She said, 'Wait until my shaytan comes to me.' Then he came and she asked him about him. He said, 'I left him dressed with a piece of cloth as a waist-wrapper, smearing the camels of the sadaqah (of the zakah) with tar (against the mange or scab). And that is a man whom a shaytan does not see but that he falls flat on his nostrils; the angel is between his two eyes and the Ruh al-Quds (Jibril) speaks with his tongue.' Section Sufyan ath-Thawri said: Whoever claimed that `Ali had more right to authority than Abu Bakr and `Umar has made a mistake and has accused Abu Bakr, `Umar and all the Muhajirun and the Ansar of making a mistake.

Sharik said: No-one in whom there is any good advances `Ali before Abu Bakr and `Umar.
Abu Usamah said: Do you grasp who Abu Bakr and `Umar were? They were the father and mother of Islam.

Ja'far as-Sadiq said: I am quit of whoever mentions Abu Bakr and `Umar with anything but good.

 

The agreements of (the views of) `Umar (with subsequent confirmatory revelations of Qur'an)

Mujahid said: `Umar used to hold a view and Qur'an would be revealed with (confirmation of) it.
`Ali said: In the Qur'an there are some of the views of `Umar.

Ibn `Umar said: When people said one thing and `Umar said another, the Qur'an would be revealed with the like of what `Umar said.

`Umar said: I agreed with my Lord in three things; I said, 'Messenger of Allah, if only we were to take the Station of Ibrahim as a place of prayer,' and there was revealed, '... and take the Station of Ibrahim as a place of prayer.' (Qur'an 2: 125). I said, 'Messenger of Allah, both good and bad people come to visit your wives; if only you would order them to wear hijabs,' and the ayah of the hijab was revealed. The wives of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, united in jealousy, and so I said, 'Perhaps his Lord, if he divorces you, will give him in exchange wives better than you, ...' and it was revealed just like that (with exactly the same words, see Qur'an 66: 5).

In another hadith `Umar said, 'I agreed with my Lord in three things: in the hijab, in the prisoners at Badr, and in the Station of Ibrahim.' In this hadith is a fourth instance.

In at-Tahdhib of an-Nawawi, 'The Qur'an was revealed in agreement with him on the prisoners at Badr, on the hijab, on the Station of Ibrahim and on the prohibition of wine.' He added a fifth instance. Its hadith is that he said, 'O Allah, make clear to us about wine with an explanation which relieves us from all doubt.' Then Allah revealed its prohibition.

Anas said: `Umar said, 'I was in agreement with my Lord in four things: this ayah was revealed, "And certainly We have created man from an extraction of clay," (Qur'an 23: 12) and when it was revealed I said, "So blessed be Allah the best of creators," and then it was revealed, "So blessed be Allah the best of creators."' (Qur'an 95: 8). Here he mentioned a sixth instance. The hadith has another chain of transmission from Ibn `Abbas.

Then I saw in the book Fada'il al-Imamayn of Abu `Abdullah ash-Shaybani that he said, '`Umar agreed with his Lord in twenty-one situations,' and he mentioned these six (aforementioned). He augmented as a seventh the story of `Abdullah ibn Ubayy. I say: Its hadith is in the sound traditions from him (`Umar). He said, 'When `Abdullah ibn Ubayy died, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and his family and grant them peace, was invited to perform the funeral prayer over him so he stood up for that. I rose up until I stood up close to his chest and said, "Messenger of Allah, is it over the enemy of Allah, Ibn Ubayy, who said one day such-and-such?" Then, by Allah, it wasn't very long until it was revealed, "And do not pray over one of them ever ..." (Qur'an 9: 84) to the conclusion of the ayah.' 8. 'They ask you about wine ...' (Qur'an 2: 219) to the end of the ayah.

9. 'O you who believe, do not approach the prayer ...' (Qur'an 4: 43) to the end of the ayah. I say that the two of them, along with the ayah from Al-Ma'idah, are one instance, and the three are in the preceding hadith. 10. When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, increased in seeking forgiveness for a people, `Umar said, 'It is equal to them.' Then Allah revealed, 'It is equal to them whether you seek forgiveness for them . . .' (Qur'an 63: 2) to the end of the ayah. This hadith has been narrated of Ibn `Abbas.

11. When he, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sought the advice of the Companions about the expedition to Badr, `Umar was in favour of the expedition and so it was revealed, 'Just as your Lord brought you out of your house by the truth ...' (Qur'an 8: 5) to the end of the ayah.

12. When he, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sought the advice of the Companions with respect to the story of the slander (of `A'ishah) `Umar said, 'Who married you to her, Messenger of Allah?' He said, 'Allah.' He said, 'Do you think that your Lord would conceal a defect of hers from you? Glory be to You, this is huge slander!' (Qur'an 24: 16). Then the revelation came down just like that.

13. His story in the fast when he made love to his wife after waking from sleep (before the pre-dawn meal) and that was forbidden in the beginning of Islam and so it was revealed, 'It is permitted to you on the night of the fast ...' (Qur'an 2: 187) to the end of the ayah.

14. His words, Exalted is He, 'Whoever is an enemy to Jibril ...' (Qur'an 2: 97) to the end of the ayah. I say that it has been narrated from many different narrators the best of which is from `Abd ar-Rahman ibn Abi Layla that: An unbeliever met `Umar and said, 'Jibril, whom your companion mentions, is an enemy to us.' So `Umar said, 'Whoever is an enemy to Allah and His angels and His messengers and Jibril and Mika'il, then truly Allah is an enemy to the disbelievers.' So it was revealed on the tongue of `Umar.

15. His words, Exalted is He, 'Then no! By your Lord, they do not believe ...' (Qur'an 4: 65) to the end of the ayah. I say that its story has been narrated from Abu'l-Aswad. He said: Two men brought a dispute to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family and grant them peace, and he gave judgement between them. The one who had judgement given against him said, 'Let us go to `Umar ibn al-Khattab,' and so the two of them went to him. The man said, 'The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, gave judgement in my favour against this man and he said, "Let us go to `Umar."' `Umar said, 'Is it like that?' He said, 'Yes.' So `Umar said, 'Stay where you are until I come out to you.' Then he came out to them wrapping his sword in his garment and struck the one who had said, 'Let us go to `Umar,' and killed him. The other returned and said, 'Messenger of Allah, `Umar killedby Allah!my companion.' So he said, 'I wouldn't have thought that `Umar would have ventured to kill a believer.' Then Allah revealed, 'Then no! By your Lord they do not believe ...' to the end of the ayah. He declared, there was to be no retaliation or compensation for the blood of the man and declared `Umar free from any wrong in his killing. There is another text that supports this story which I have related in At-Tafsir al-Musnad.

16. Seeking permission to enter. That was because his servant entered his room when he was sleeping and he said, 'O Allah, forbid entrance.' Then the ayah of seeking permission to enter was revealed.

17. His saying about the Jews, 'They are a confused people.'

18. His words, exalted is He, 'Many of the first ones and many of the latter ones.' (Qur'an 56: 39-40). I say that Jabir ibn `Abdullah narrated its story and that it is in the Asbab an-Nuzul.

19. The lifting (abrogation) of the recitation of, 'The older man and the older woman when they commit adultery ....' to the end of the ayah (an ayah whose judgement remains valid although it is not in the mushaf and is not recited).

20. His words on the Day of Uhud when Abu Sufyan said, 'Is so-and-so among the people?" (`Umar said) "We will not answer him,' and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, agreed with him.
Ash-Shaybani said: We join to this that Ka`b al-Ahbar said, 'Woe to the king of the earth from the King of heaven.' Then `Umar said, 'Except for whoever takes himself to account.' Ka`b said, 'By the One in Whose hand is my soul it is in the Tawrah. You have carried it on (the words of the verse) consecutively.' Then `Umar fell prostrate.

Then I have seen in Al-Kamil of Ibn `Adi from `Umar that Bilal used to say, when he called the adhan, 'I witness that there is no god but Allah. Come to prayer.' Then `Umar said to him, 'Say after it, "I witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah."' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Say as `Umar said.'

 

His miracles

Ibn `Umar said: `Umar sent an army and he put at the head of them a man called Sariyah. While `Umar was delivering the khutbah he began to cry out, 'Sariyah, the mountain!' three times. Then later the messenger of the army came and he asked `Umar, 'Amir al-Muminin, we were being defeated and in that situation we heard a voice crying out, "Sariyah, the mountain!" three times. We put the mountain to our rear, and then Allah defeated them.' Someone said to `Umar, 'You cried out with those words.' That mountain, where Sariyah was, is close to Nahawand in the land of the non-Arabs (Persian Iraq).

Ibn `Umar, in another version of the hadith, said: `Umar was delivering the khutbah on the day of Jumu'ah and then he turned aside during his khutbah and said, 'Sariyah, the mountain! He who asks the wolf to be a shepherd will be wronged.' People looked about, one to another. Then `Ali said to them, 'Let him explain what he meant.' When he had finished they asked him and he said, 'It occurred to me in my mind that the idolators were defeating our brothers who were passing by a mountain, and that if they were to turn towards it, they would fight on one front only, but if they passed by it they would be destroyed. So there came out of me that which you claim you heard.' He said: The messenger came a month later and mentioned that they had heard the voice of `Umar on that day, and he said, 'We turned towards the mountain, and Allah gave us victory.' 'Amr ibn al-Harith said: While `Umar (ibn al-Khattab) was upon the mimbar delivering the khutbah on the day of jumu'ah suddenly he left off the khutbah and said, 'Sariyah, the mountain!' two or three times. Some of those present said, 'He has gone mad, he is insane.' `Abd ar-Rahman ibn `Auf went in to see himand he had confidence in himand he said, 'You give them room to talk against you. While you were giving the khutbah, suddenly you cried out, "Sariyah, the mountain!" What sort of thing is this?' He said, 'By Allah, I could not control it. I saw them fighting near a mountain and they were being attacked from in front of them and from behind them. I could not stop myself from saying, "Sariyah, the mountain!" so that they would reach the mountain.' Then they waited some time until Sariyah's messenger came with his letter, 'The people met us (in battle) on the day of jumu'ah, and we fought them until, when it was time for jumu'ah, we heard someone cry out, "Sariyah, the mountain!" twice, so we reached the mountain. We continued victorious over our enemy until Allah defeated them and killed them.' Then those people who had accused him said, 'Leave this man alone, because he is in collusion with him.'

Ibn `Umar in another hadith said: `Umar ibn al-Khattab said to a man, 'What is your name?' He said, 'Jamrah (a live coal).' He asked, 'Whose son?' He said, 'The son of Shihab (flame).' He asked, 'From what tribe?' He said, 'From al-Hurqah (a state of burning).' He asked, 'Where is your dwelling?' He said, 'At al-Harrah (the heat).' He asked, 'In which of them?' He said, 'Dhat Ladha (the blazing one).' `Umar said, 'Go to your family for they have been burnt.' The man returned to his family and found that they had been burnt. This hadith is narrated of Yahya ibn Sa'id by Malik and by a number of other compilers of hadith.

Qais ibn al-Hajjaj, from someone he related from, said: When Egypt was conquered, its people came to 'Amr ibn al-'As, when the first day of one of their months arrived, and they said to him, 'Amir, this Nile of ours has a year in which it does not flow without it.' He asked, 'And what is that?' They said, 'When eleven nights have elapsed of this month we seek a young virgin from her parents, we obtain the consent of the parents, then we dress her in the best possible clothing and ornaments, and then we throw her in this Nile.' So 'Amr said to them, 'This will never be in Islam. Islam demolishes what precedes it.' They left, and neither did the Nile flow a little nor a lot, until they intended to emigrate. When 'Amr saw that, he wrote to `Umar ibn al-Khattab about it. He wrote back to him, 'You were right in what you said. Truly, Islam demolishes what precedes it.' He sent a slip of paper inside his letter and wrote to 'Amr, 'I have sent you a slip of paper inside my letter, so throw it in the Nile.' When `Umar's letter reached 'Amr ibn al-'As, he took the slip and opened it, and there in it was, 'From the slave of Allah `Umar ibn al-Khattab Amir al-Muminin to the Nile of Egypt. Now, if you used to flow before, then don't flow! If it was Allah who made you flow, then I ask the Overwhelming One to make you flow.' He threw the slip into the Nile a day before (the Festival of) the Cross. They woke up in the morning, and Allah, Exalted is He, had made it flow (and it rose) sixteen cubits in one night. Allah cut off this sunnah (custom) of the people of Egypt right up to this day.

Tariq ibn Shihab said: A man was in conversation with `Umar ibn al-Khattab and told him a lie, and he would say, 'Withhold this.' Then later he told him something else and he said, 'Withhold this.' He said to him, 'Everything I told you was true except for what you told me to withhold.' Al-Hasan said: If there was anyone who recognised a lie when he was told it, then it was `Umar ibn al-Khattab.

To be contineu...

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